Writing a Scientific Abstract

Writing a Scientific Abstract

Lay summary & Abstract Yvonne Tsitsiou Michael Afnan LAY SUMMARY Yvonne Tsitsiou Year 5 Medical Student @ICL Co-chair of MedED 2019/20

e: [email protected] Feel free to message me on Facebook, Instagram (@yvonnet_1) or email me if you are super formal Learning Objectives of course 1. Communicate research effectively to a range of audiences 2. Discuss the translation of research to the clinical forum as well as the application of an informed

approach to patient care Yvonnes LOs 1. Understand the task of Lay Summary 2. Learn the techniques of successful and unsuccessful Lay Summary Lay Summary - INSTRUCTIONS Yours: (BSc 2019/20) Lay Summary (500 words): (e.g.: a magazine/ newspaper article) You will communicate your findings to individuals whose

understanding of the underlying science is not as extensive as your own, taking care to give appropriate levels of context and not to overstate conclusions. Mine: (Endo 2018/19) Writing a newspaper article reporting the findings of a scientific paper. Write an article for a general audience to report the findings of the scientific paper below. The writing style should be accessible to the public, and be similar to articles in newspapers such as The

Daily Mail, Guardian, or Times. Your submission should be no more than 1,000 words in length (including figure legends), and use no more than 2 sides of A4 paper. GENERAL ADVICE GENERAL AUDIENCE ask any nonmedic friend/family you have to read it FOCUS ON BACKGROUND not on METHODS

DO NOT OVERSTATE report what is supported by evidence ASSESSED ON. Yours: (BSc 2019/20) This will assess your ability to use a different language and writing style. Are you able to convey the research question and your findings to the lay audience, assuming a basic reading ability? Can you discuss

complex concepts in an easy-to-understand manner? Can you communicate your message without losing its impact? Endo BSc 2018/19 1. Exploring the research question / topic (20%) 2. Explaining how the study was performed (20%) 3. Summarising the most important results (20%)

4. Commenting on the implications / significance of the scientific findings (20%) 5. The use of language appropriate to the audience (10%) 6. General presentation of the article (10%) Working Example Title of article:

Constitutively active follicle-stimulating hormone receptor enables androgenindependent spermatogenesis. Take 30 seconds to UNDERSTAND title! MEANING of TITLE UNDERSTAND

Break Title into sections Translate to NON science Example Constitutively active follicle-stimulating hormone receptor enables androgenindependent spermatogenesis. When FSH receptor is active ALL the time Testosterone is not needed for Sperm

production Take 1 minute to come up with title! RESULT Simple Not overstating Relevant

Techniques Standfirsts Short (1 or 2 sentence) summaries of the complete text Enable readers to decide whether the article is something they are interested in Quotes Provide human interest Short Paragraphs One idea per paragraph

Limit paragraph length to a maximum of 3 sentences INTRO To engage the reader instantly To summarise what the story is all about Inverted pyramid

Rest of the story Journalism students are taught about the five Ws:

Who, What, When, Where Why DO NOT ALWAYS APPLY MORE TECHNIQUES

Active not passive Positive even if it is negative Officialese DO NOT Adjectives DO NOT, unless there is something to say MY INTRO

EXAMPLE NOT TO FOLLOW A bit too complicated for my liking NOW its your time to TRY Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease BACKGROUND It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, and data from

randomized trials are limited. CONCLUSIONS Supplementation with vitamin D did not result in a lower incidence of invasive cancer or cardiovascular events than placebo. WHICH IS THE BEST EXAMPLE? Vitamin D does not prevent disease

Vitamin D is unnecessary Vitamin D, no use in cancer or heart attack prevention Writing a Scientific Abstract Michael Afnan

What is the purpose of an abstract? Succinctly convey the most essential elements of your research. When would I need to write an abstract? Your ICAs Assessed throughout all 3 modules

350 Word abstract 25% of Data Management (21% of BSc year) 350 Word abstract for Group Literature Review (15% of BSc year) 250 Word abstract for Clinical Case Study (10% of BSc year) 300 Word abstract for Project (35% of BSc year) When would I need to write an abstract?

Research articles Conference abstracts First impression to reader (or examiner!) Abstract Structure Structure is usually similar but specific

to task/journal IMRaD: Introduction Method Results (and) Discussion Abstract Structure

Structure is usually similar but specific to task/journal For Data Management: Background Hypothesis Method Results Discussion/Conclusion

Abstract Structure Structure is usually similar but specific to task/journal For Research Project: Background Methods Findings Interpretation

Funding Background Course guide: Do you concisely and accurately set the scene? Do you show knowledge of the background literature?

Background Concisely and accurately set the scene 1. State the problem 2. State the context Background

Example: Preserved ejection fraction heart failure does not respond to any current treatments, and accounts for approximately half of all heart failure patients. Background

Example: Preserved ejection fraction heart failure does not respond to any current treatments, and accounts for approximately half of all heart failure patients. Background

Example: Preserved ejection fraction heart failure does not respond to any current treatments, and accounts for approximately half of all heart failure patients. Background

Show knowledge of the background literature 1. State what is known 2. State the knowledge gap Background Example:

A number of small observational studies have suggested that Drug X may have promise for treating preserved ejection fraction heart failure. However, no prospective randomized trials have tested Drug X so far. Background

Example: A number of small observational studies have suggested that Drug X may have promise for treating preserved ejection fraction heart failure. However, no prospective randomized trials have tested Drug X so far. Background

Example: A number of small observational studies have suggested that Drug X may have promise for treating preserved ejection fraction heart failure. However, no prospective randomized trials have tested Drug X so far.

Hypothesis/Research Question Course guide: Is the hypothesis/ research question clearly stated? Is it appropriate and testable? Hypothesis/Research Question

Clearly state a testable hypothesis/ research question 1. State the intervention (+/comparison) 2. State the measurable outcome Hypothesis/Research Question Example: We tested whether a long-term

course of Drug X was more efficacious than placebo for reducing mortality in patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure. Hypothesis/Research Question Example: We tested whether a long-term

course of Drug X was more efficacious than placebo for reducing mortality in patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure. Hypothesis/Research Question Example: We tested whether a long-term

course of Drug X was more efficacious than placebo for reducing mortality in patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure. Method Course guide: Have you set out and justified

the management of the data, and the statistical testing performed? Method First things first 1. State the study design 2. State participant selection

3. Describe exactly what participants did Method Example: We performed a double blinded randomized control trial. We randomly assigned all patients diagnosed with

preserved ejection fraction heart failure at Charing Cross Hospital between October 2005 and October 2009 into two groups: either to take Drug X daily, or to take the placebo daily. We encouraged adherence with monthly district nurse visits. Method

Example: We performed a double blinded randomized control trial. We randomly assigned all patients diagnosed with preserved ejection fraction heart failure at Charing Cross Hospital between October 2005 and October 2009 into two groups: either to take Drug X daily, or to take the placebo daily. We encouraged adherence

with monthly district nurse visits. Method Example: We performed a double blinded randomized control trial. We randomly assigned all patients diagnosed with preserved ejection fraction heart failure at

Charing Cross Hospital between October 2005 and October 2009 into two groups: either to take Drug X daily, or to take the placebo daily. We encouraged adherence with monthly district nurse visits. Method Example:

We performed a double blinded randomized control trial. We randomly assigned all patients diagnosed with preserved ejection fraction heart failure at Charing Cross Hospital between October 2005 and October 2009 into two groups: either to take Drug X daily, or to take the placebo daily. We encouraged adherence with monthly district nurse visits.

Method Set out and justify the management of the data 1. State primary outcome (+ any secondary outcomes) 2. State when you collected the data. Give reason

Method Example: We measured mortality at 1 and 5 years so that we could evaluate both short and long term benefits Drug X. Method

Example: We measured mortality at 1 and 5 years so that we could evaluate both short and long term benefits Drug X. Method Example:

We measured mortality at 1 and 5 years so that we could evaluate both short and long term benefits Drug X. Method Example: We measured mortality at 1 and 5 years so that we could evaluate both

short and long term benefits Drug X. Method Set out the statistical testing performed 1. State the name of the test 2. State the software

Method Example: We compared mortality rates with hazard ratios calculated using SPSS. Results Course guide:

Have you demonstrated a clear, concise description of the data, and the main findings. Have you chosen an appropriate table or figure to portray the main finding(s)? Is the table/ figure appropriately labelled/ referenced in the text? Results

Most important section Can be the longest Present KEY findings Results Clearly and concisely describe the data and main findings.

1. Describe participants 2. State primary outcome result 3. Follow with secondary outcomes Results Example: We enrolled 5,201 patients in this trial

2,500 assigned to treatment group and 2,701 assigned to placebo. At 1 year, there was no difference in mortality between treatment group (23%) and placebo group (25%) (HR 0.86 1.04). At 5 years, mortality was significantly lower in the treatment vs placebo group (35% vs 44%, HR 0.69 0.89).

Results Example: We enrolled 5,201 patients in this trial 2,500 assigned to treatment group and 2,701 assigned to placebo. At 1 year, there was no difference in mortality between treatment group (23%) and placebo group (25%) (HR 0.86 1.04). At

5 years, mortality was significantly lower in the treatment vs placebo group (35% vs 44%, HR 0.69 0.89). Results Example: We enrolled 5,201 patients in this trial 2,500 assigned to treatment group and

2,701 assigned to placebo. At 1 year, there was no difference in mortality between treatment group (23%) and placebo group (25%) (HR 0.86 1.04). At 5 years, mortality was significantly lower in the treatment vs placebo group (35% vs 44%, HR 0.69 0.89). Results

Example: We enrolled 5,201 patients in this trial 2,500 assigned to treatment group and 2,701 assigned to placebo. At 1 year, there was no difference in mortality between treatment group (23%) and placebo group (25%) (HR 0.86 1.04). At 5 years, mortality was significantly lower

in the treatment vs placebo group (35% vs 44%, HR 0.69 0.89). Results Choose an appropriate table/figure 1. Check it is allowed for your task

2. Would it be easier to show with text? Conclusion Course guide: Have you addressed the hypothesis/ research question? Is the conclusion over- or under-stated? How do these

data sit within the current literature? How do these data add to or challenge the current knowledge? Conclusion Have you addressed the hypothesis/ research question?

1. Answer the hypothesis directly 2. Mimic hypothesis language Conclusion Remember the hypothesis: We tested whether a long-term course of Drug X was more

efficacious than placebo for reducing mortality in patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure. Conclusion Direct answer: Our results showed that a long-term course of Drug X is more

efficacious than placebo for reducing mortality in patients with preserved ejection fraction heart failure. Conclusion Is the conclusion over- or under-stated? 1. State important negatives

2. State relevant limitations and implications Conclusion Example: However, 1 year mortality was not reduced compared to placebo. Furthermore, we encouraged treatment

adherence with regular district nurse visits, which is unlikely to be possible for most patients. Therefore, this studys results are likely to overestimate the realworld benefit of Drug X. Conclusion Example: However, 1 year mortality was not

reduced compared to placebo. Furthermore, we encouraged treatment adherence with regular district nurse visits, which is unlikely to be possible for most patients. Therefore, this studys results are likely to overestimate the realworld benefit of Drug X. Conclusion

Example: However, 1 year mortality was not reduced compared to placebo. Furthermore, we encouraged treatment adherence with regular district nurse visits, which is unlikely to be possible for most patients. Therefore, this studys results are likely to overestimate the realworld benefit of Drug X.

Conclusion Example: However, 1 year mortality was not reduced compared to placebo. Furthermore, we encouraged treatment adherence with regular district nurse visits, which is unlikely to be possible for most patients. Therefore, this studys

results are likely to overestimate the realworld benefit of Drug X. Conclusion How do these data sit within the current literature? 1. If you wanted this paper to be cited, what would it be for?

Conclusion Example: This is the first strong evidence put forward for the benefit of Drug X to treat preserved ejection fraction heart failure, a condition which cannot yet be treated with any other medication.

Title Should clearly describe the abstract contents Should attract the reader Should be searchable Title

Example: Drug X versus placebo for the treatment of preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) Title

Example: Drug X versus placebo for the treatment of preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) Title

Example: Drug X versus placebo for the treatment of preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) Keywords

Make your paper searchable! Use MeSH http://mesh.med.yale.edu/ Tips Tailor all advice to your abstract (e.g. swap participants with

included studies for reviews) Tips Write the paper first Be transparent and honest Writing style advice

Use active phrasing Avoid jargon and unexpanded abbreviations Keep sentences short Writing style advice Academic shouldnt mean dry Know your readers level

Any further questions Please feel free to email me with any questions at: [email protected] Instagram

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