Welcome to Global History and Geography Regents Review
and Geography Regents Review Today we will be reviewing Globalization The past 25 years have been a time of great change. While globalization has resulted in benefits to almost all nations, there is considerable debate about whether developed nations have benefited at the expense of poorer countries. There have been many regional conflicts, and international terrorism, including cyberwarfare, that remain a great threat to the world order. As many nations look to the future, they struggle with the tension between modernization and
traditional values. Changes come at a quick pace. Advances in computer technology, space exploration, and medicine have changed the way people live. Still, many problems remain, especially in the global environment. The world today has become smaller. Advanced technology has connected the world economically, politically, socially, and environmentally. We are more interconnected than ever before and as a result are affected by negative as well as positive influences, such as economic downturns. Nations are making efforts to work together to address todays challenges as well as ensure that all nations can reap the benefits.
Economic Trends There is an economic division between the worlds prosperous countries and developing countries, yet they are interdependent. Problems in one area of the world may have powerful effects on the global economy. Cooperation among nations can lead to improvements for all. North and South: Differences in Development There is an economic division between the relatively rich nations of the global North and the relatively poor nations of the global South. Wealthy Nations The global North includes the nations of Western Europe and North America, along with Japan and Australia. These nations are highly industrialized and have high literacy rates and high standards of living.
Poor Nations The global South includes developing economies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Many were once colonies and remain poor and industrially undeveloped. Policies established during the age of imperialism continued after 1945. As a result, some nations have remained economically dependent on their former colonial rulers. Nations with Emerging Economies Countries with emerging economies are developing businesses and industries at a fast rate. Some were poor nations that are now richer, although they may have many poor and unemployed people. Geographic Obstacles to Development Several factors have hindered progress in developing countries. Uncertain rainfall, lack of fertile land, and geographic barriers are problems faced by many nations. Some countries are small and have
few resources. Natural disasters can be devastating to struggling economies. For example, the country of Haiti in the Caribbean is often in the path of major hurricanes. Flooding and mudslides have led to deaths and left many survivors homeless. It takes years to rebuild damaged economies. Population Growth High birthrates and better medical care in many nations of the global South have led to overpopulation. Also, specific religious and cultural beliefs, economic need, and a lack of reproductive information have led to increasing populations in certain countries. Overpopulation can cause a lack of food, as well as inadequate housing, jobs, and medical care. By 2012, the worlds population reached the milestone of over seven billion people. Many developing
nations have tried to reduce population growth, but only China is willing to force people to limit family size. Even there, the one-child policy was modified because of culture, an aging population, and a growing economy. Economic Dependence, Trade Deficits, and Debt For centuries, most people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America worked in agriculture. Today, much of the labor force in the global South is still engaged in agriculture and depends on developed nations for manufactured goods and technology while exporting cash crops or natural resources. These factors have led to trade deficits. A trade deficit is a situation in
which a nation imports more than it exports. Over the years, economic struggles and the desire to diversify their economies and develop quickly led to heavy borrowing from foreign banks. In the 1980s, interest rates rose, the global economy slowed, and resources were used to pay for high interest payments on these loans. This lowered productivity and increased debt. Economic patterns are changing. Emerging economics, such as China, India, and Brazil, built factories and continue to develop advanced technology industries. They buy raw materials from poorer countries and build factories in some of the least developed countries. Poor countries no longer depend on only the richest countries. Globalization
Although people and countries in different parts of the world have been linked by trade for centuries, a global economy, the integration of national economies into an international economy, began to develop in the late 1800s. Advances in science and technology in the late 20 th century accelerated the pace of this globalization. Today, raw materials flow from one country to factories in another, while the finished products are sold in both emerging and rich nations. In the garment industry, this flow is often hidden, or indirect, so foreign companies and consumers have no idea of the conditions under which the product is made. Factories in Bangladesh have low wages, poor working conditions, as well as minimal and poorly enforced regulations. These conditions allow lower cost, higher production, and better profit margins. Recent industrial accidents have caused some companies to rethink using the cheapest supplies, many of which are based in countries
such as Bangladesh. They are putting pressure on governments and factories to improve working conditions, especially worker safety. Working in the Global Economy Rich and poor nations have become increasingly interdependent. Interdependence is the dependence of nations on each other for goods, resources, knowledge, and labor from other nations in the world. The nations of the global North control much of the worlds capital, trade, and technology, but they depend on the developing world for many resources. As the global economy grows, many companies in the north outsource jobs to developing or emerging economies. Outsourcing is the practice of sending work to outside companies in order to save money or increase efficiency.
Dependence on oil Oil prices affect economies everywhere. When oil supplies are high, prices fall, and many economies suffer. Inflation caused by high oil prices has contributed to debt crises in developing nations, while falling oil prices can damage economies that depend heavily on oil sales. Regional issues, such as civil unrest in Iraq, Libya, and Syria, have disrupted oil production. A European embargo on Iranian oil was imposed to limit its nuclear program and influenced oil production. Regional crises such as these raise the worldwide price of oil. In recent years, China has become the worlds biggest oil importer. It purchases 50% of Irans oil, partly because it is less concerned with price than Western oil companies, which are profit-driven. China is presently trying to invest in oil fields rather than just
purchase oil. New methods of oil extraction, such as hydraulic fracturing, have affected the global oil market. In mid-2014, the price of oil dropped. The drop hurt the economies of countries, such as Russia and Saudi Arabia, that depend on oil sales. Oil-importing countries benefited from the lower prices. Global banking and Financial Markets Finances can immediately flow across international boundaries via the Internet today, and whatever happens in one country has an effect on other places. Many Western
banks make loans to developing nations to be used for modernization. As interest rates rose in the 1980s, the world economy slowed and poor nations struggled to repay their loans. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank stepped in to work out agreements that included lower interest rates, new payment schedules, and a move to free market policies. Because financial markets are also linked, changes in stock prices in one part of the world can affect other markets. Thus, when many Asian countries faced economic problems in the 1990s, stock markets all over the world were shaken. Microfinancing has made smaller loans available to clients who do not meet the qualifications for a loan from a larger institution. Low-income individuals without collateral are able to obtain small loans to improve or start their often home-based businesses.
Multinational corporations Businesses that operate in many countries are called multinational corporations. Many of these companies are based in the global North or in countries with emerging economies. They make investments in the global South and bring new employment opportunities, infrastructure improvements, and technology. Sometimes they compete with and may ruin local industries. Because these corporations are foreign-owned, they respond to the economies in their home country while creating social and economic changes in the countries in which they are operating. International Drug Trade
The United States declared a war on drugs in the 1980s and pressured many Latin American, African, and Asian countries to move against drug cartels. There has been some international cooperation to eliminate illegal drug trade. Sometimes the United States has linked this cooperation to trade or aid agreements. Global Financial Crisis In 2007, a financial crisis that began in the US spread to many global financial institutions. Some were multinational companies, while others were affected because of investments or loans. In countries all over the world, unemployment rose as major financial institutions in the global North went out of business or had to seek governmental support. By 2008, trade had contracted because people in
developed countries could afford fewer goods. The G-20 and IMF worked with countries developed, emerging, and poor to create programs to limit the effects of the crisis. Although most countries were affected, by early 2010, emerging economies, such as China and India, were recovering. However, the decrease in demand for their goods and services in the United States and Europe meant a slow export market and long-term recovery. In the more industrialized countries, such as the US and England, economic improvement moved much more slowly. Many developed countries cut government spending, as did private companies. Unemployment rose. The countries with the most critical financial problems, such as Iceland and Greece, were not poor countires, but had large debts and deficits that grew worse during that crisis. The EU helped its financially troubled members: Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Cyprus, and Spain. These countries made severe changes to their economies to get loans from the EU and international financial institutions.
Changing Globalization In 2012, European governments that seemed to be recovering, elected new leaders because debt-reducing budgets were very unpopular. This crisis has showed that the world economic picture is rebalancing. Trade between emerging economies and poor nations improved more quickly than trade with more developed countries. China overtook Germany as the biggest exporter in the world. The countries that had been the biggest markets are not recovering quickly, so exporting countries have had to develop new markets. The continued fragile global economic recovery has been up-and-down for both high-income and low-income countries. Because of slow economic growth in most countries, multinational corporations are not making the profits they expected. The slow recovery, political issues, heavy fines, and taxes concern these corporations. By 2016, many economists felt globalization was changing, but were cautious about predicting what future
globalization would look like. They know there has been a steady drop in global trade and international investment. Some predictions include more trade barriers being enacted. At the same time increased digital globalization is occurring. More multinational companies manage themselves digitally rather than open offices in many different countries. Consumers shop online, buying goods from all over the world. Finally, social media is creating a new international conversation. The Threat of Terrorism Terrorism is the deliberate use of unpredictable violence, especially against civilians, to gain revenge or to achieve political goals. Terrorism is often used by groups that do not have their own military power. Terrorists use tactics such as bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, and hijackings. In recent years, new fears about nuclear terrorism, chemical terrorism, and cyberterrorism have developed. Terrorism
spreads fear throughout the world. At first terrorism was local, such as disputes between nationalist groups that both claimed the same homeland (such as the Palestinians and the Israelis) or that claimed the same land (such as India and Pakistan claiming Kashmir). Then terrorism became more global with a developed central leadership. Al Qaeda trained terrorists, raised money, and supported conflicts between traditionalist groups and modern Western societies. The attacks on New York and Washington D.C. on September 11, 2001 alarmed government leaders everywhere. The attacks showed how terrorism affects the security and stability of all nations. At the same time, leaders recognized that defeating terrorism will require a lengthy effort. Social Patterns and Political
Change Todays world is being pressured to change as a result of modernization and industrialization. Rapid urbanization and excessive population growth are triggering widespread change. Human rights have become a focal point. Women are gaining more rights and opportunities. Efforts are being made to curb human rights abuses, to ensure the rights of all people, and to help those in need. Modernization and Tradition In most societies, there is strain between the forces of modernization and those of tradition. This is especially true in non-Western societies. During the age of imperialism, modernization usually meant westernization, or the adoption of
Western ways. Traditions were often weakened. Many developing nations today work toward a balance between modernization and tradition. They want to embrace modern technology but preserve traditions and religious beliefs. Urbanization: Causes and Effects Urbanization, or the movement of people to cities, is one of the most significant forces of social change, especially in the developing world. In developing countries, many people have moved to the cities to find jobs and escape the poverty of rural areas. Cities also offer other attractions, such as better health care, educational opportunities, stores, and modern conveniences.
Cultural change In modern cities, peoples traditional values and beliefs are often weakened. The caste system in India, for example, is not as strong in urban areas as in rural areas. Women have more opportunities in cities. Yet, some people feel cut off from their former communities and customs. Poverty Those people who cannot afford to live in cities often settle nearby in shantytowns, areas of makeshift shacks that lack sewer systems, electricity, and other basic services. Their crowded conditions often lead to water pollution and other unhealthy effects. Lagos in Nigeria, Mumbai and Kolkata in India, and Mexico City in Mexico have been unable to cope with the waves of migration from rural areas. Status of Women
Some developing countries have also expanded the role of women, while others have limited it. The status of women in Muslim countries varies widely. In Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, many urban women gave up some traditional practices. In other countries, especially those with religious governments, such as Iran, women follow more traditional practices. In most African and Southwest Asian nations, women won the right to vote when the countries gained independence, yet their social status often remains a subservient one. Human trafficking One of the fastest-growing human rights issues in the world today is human
trafficking. This is the recruiting and transporting of people for the purposes of slavery, forced labor, and servitude. Women are particularly at risk from sex trafficking. In Africa, in particular, child have been forced to be child soldiers. Political prisoners Countries all over the world have been accused of human rights abuses in their treatment of political prisoners. Some prisoners were arrested for merely participating in protests. Others were accused of more serious crimes, like treason, even though they may only have joined an opposition party. In countries where the government tightly controls the media, such as in China and North Korea,
people do not have much freedom of speech. Once in prison, many of these people live in horrible conditions or in solitary confinement, and are used as forced labor or undergo many hours of torture. Migration Migration has grown due to economics, politics, and conflicts. There are always economic migrants, but a huge flood of refugees, or people who leave their homeland to find safety elsewhere, is arriving in Europe after fleeing war-torn and terrorized countries. Europeans help the immigrants with food, housing, and jobs, but some resent them. Some countries, like Hungary, have closed their borders. Others put a limit
on how many people they will accept for resettlement. Many Europeans fear that terrorists will arrive among the refugees. Others fear the social, cultural, and economic changes that occur with the immigrants. Science and Technology Better food production, an explosion in information and communication, the exploration of space, and medical breakthroughs have changed the world. In many ways, science and technology have benefited peoples lives. However, many problems remain to be solved. The Green Revolution
In the 1960s, farmers in developing countries applied new methods (installing pumps to bring water from underground to distribute water, using fertilizers and pesticides) of farming to increase their production of wheat and rice. Their efforts were so successful that the result was called the Green Revolution. In some countries, such as India and Indonesia, the Green Revolution doubled food output. The Green Revolution increased the food supply, but it did not solve the problems of world hunger and poverty. In some regions, population is still growing faster than food production. Recently, scientists have developed genetically modified food as another way to combat world hunger. The Information Age
Probably the most revolutionary development since the mid-1900s is the computer. Computers have allowed people to obtain, process, and distribute information very quickly. This increase in the use of computers is often called the Computer Revolution. The rapid spread of information, which began in the 1950s and increases with each passing year, is sometimes referred to as the Information Revolution. In the 1990s, the Internet began as a growing computer network that linked individuals, governments, and businesses all over the world. This access to information has had unexpected results. Social media played a significant role during the Arab Spring because it facilitated communication and interaction among participants of political protests.
The Space Age In recent years the US and Russia have cooperated on joint space ventures. At the International Space Station scientific experiments are done by astronauts from many countries. Medical Technology Since 1945, medical science has achieved amazing successes. Through the world, people are living longer, infant mortality rates are lower, and people can enjoy a better quality of life. Antibiotics Vaccines Transplants
Laser Surgery New Treatments and Medication Not all medical breakthroughs are completely beneficial Genetic Engineering New Epidemics Drug-Resistant Microbes Destruction of Tropical Rain Forests The Environment Pollution is the contamination of the environment, including air, water, and soil. Pollution is harmful to humans as well as to plants and other animal life. Factories and automobiles release gases and soot
into the air. These substances can cause respiratory disease. They can even block sunlight, causing plants to grow more slowly. Water can become polluted by human wastes, fertilizers, pesticides, and toxic chemicals. These substances may lead to the development of cancers or even cause death. For this reason, many nations have set standards for both air and water quality. In many developing countries, such as China and India, the rush to create a strong economy overrides pollution concerns. The impact of rapid industrialization and the accompanying urban growth often create a pollution crisis. Beijing and other cities in China are experiencing air pollution that is a thick, fog-like pollution. Thousands are dying from related respiratory disease, plants are stunted, and tourism is suffering. The blows are blowing pollution across the Pacific Ocean, and it is affected the western United States.
Acid Rain Acid rain occurs when rain falls through air that is polluted by the burning of fossil fuels. Factories, automobiles and other sources release these chemicals. Acid rain damages forests, lakes, and farmland. Because of winds, air pollution in one part of the world can cause acid rain in another. International agreements have been signed to reduce emissions of the substances that cause acid rain. Depletion of the ozone layer Some scientists are concerned about depletion of the ozone layer, a layer of gases high in the atmosphere that protects Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun. The ozone layer is becoming thinner, perhaps because of the use of
chemical pollutants. Many developed countries have agreed to eliminate production and use of harmful substances. Climate change Scientists are concerned about a gradual rise in global temperatures. Many places recorded their hottest temperatures while other places experienced abnormal cold. Many scientists believe this phenomenon is caused by the greenhouse effect, in which warm air becomes trapped in the lower atmosphere. This overall warming and extreme weather events affect agriculture and cause coastal flooding as polar ice caps melt.
International Conferences 1992 178 nations attended the UN Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 1997 Attendees agreed to set limits on emissions in the Kyoto Protocol. * The US and China have kept to the limits. 2015 200 countries agreed to limit climate change at the Climate Change Conference in Paris. *In 2017 the US withdrew from the agreement. Scarcity of clean water Approx. 1 billion people worldwide lack access to clean water, many because of
population growth, pollution, and climate change. Private industry and organizations such as the United Nations are developing clean water technologies, improving water quality , and ensuring peoples access to clean water. Deforestation Deforestation is the destruction of forests, especially tropical rain forests. Deforestation is usually caused by development as nations harvest lumber or clear land to raise crops, graze cattle, or build homes. Some scientists estimate that the world is losing more than 50 million acres of tropical forest each year. Brazil, India and Indonesia are the nations where forests are disappearing at the highest rate. The effects of deforestation include changes in local weather patterns, a buildup of
CO2 in the atmosphere, soil erosion, and extinction of plants and animals. Desertification The changeover from arable land, or land that can be farmed, into desert is called desertification. Desertification is caused mostly by human activity especially overgrazing by livestock and the cutting down of forests. The Sahara in Africa is expanding at the rate of about 50 miles into the Sahel per year. The expansion of deserts is one cause of famine. To control desertification, livestock needs to be restricted and trees have to be planted.
Endangered Species Development (clearing of land, damming of waterways, and pollution) threatens to wipe out species of plants and animals. If species are lost, the balance of the ecosystem could be damaged. International agreements have attempted to address the topic of endangered species. Nuclear Proliferation The use of nuclear energy and the proliferation, or spread, of nuclear weapons pose serious potential threats to the global environment.
In 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Soviet Union exposed people and crops to deadly radiation. Radiation was also blown across countries in Europe. In 2011 in Japan, a powerful earthquake sent a tsunami across Japan and damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. While tensions between the major nuclear powers have eased since the end of the Cold War, a continuing concern is that regional conflicts, such as the dispute between India and Pakistan, could escalate into a nuclear exchange. Iran has a nuclear program that it claims is for developing nuclear material to use to generate electricity and for medical uses. However, Iran has threatened countries like Israel and the US. In
2012, the UN< the US and the EU placed sanctions on Iran for its continued nuclear activity. In 2015, Iran signed an agreement to limit its nuclear research, rid itself of some uranium, and submit to inspections. In exchange, the severe economic sanctions will be lifted. North Korea has been challenge for achieving global nuclear nonproliferation. Fore years, the US has tried to negotiate an end to North Koreas nuclear and missile development.
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