Virus and ViroidPlant Pathogens - University of Florida

Virus and ViroidPlant Pathogens - University of Florida

Virus and Viroid Plant Pathogens Kenneth L. Johnson II USDA National Needs Fellow University of Florida Plant Medicine Program IPM Florida- IPM Apprentice Kirk W. Martin SM(NRCM), CBSP USDA National Needs Fellow University of Florida Plant Medicine Program IPM Florida-IPM Technical Information Specialist Begomovirus-Bean golden yellow mosaic virus Family: Geminiviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid is elongated and exhibits icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is geminate and has a diameter of 18-20 nm. Capsids appear hexagonal in outline. The capsomer arrangement is not obvious. The capsid consists

of 22 capsomers. With a length of dimers 30 nm. (ICTV database) R.G. Milne, Istituto di Virologia, CRN, Torino, Italy 2 Begomovirus-Bean golden yellow mosaic virus Family: Geminiviridae Host(s): Wild bush bean, Macroptilium lathyroides, Common bush bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, Sieva bean, P. lunatus, Threelobe false mallow, Malvastrum coromandelianum Howard F. Schwartz,

Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Leaf symptoms: vein yellow net, interveinal chlorosis Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org 3 Begomovirus-Bean golden yellow mosaic virus Family: Geminiviridae Host(s): Wild bush bean, Macroptilium lathyroides, Common bush bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, Sieva bean, P. lunatus, Threelobe false mallow, Malvastrum coromandelianum

Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Leaf symptoms: vein yellow net, interveinal chlorosis Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Begomovirus-Bean golden yellow mosaic virus Family: Geminiviridae UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Diagnostic viral inclusions: Nuclear Rounded dense bodies Ring-shaped (rare) UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic

Brittle crystals UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Closterovirus-Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Family: Closteroviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a length of 2000 nm and a width of 12 nm. M. Bar-Joseph Volcani Centre, Bet Dagan, Israel

Closterovirus-Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Family: Closteroviridae Host(s): Citrus ssp. grafted onto Citrus aurantium (sour orange) root stock quick decline, pitted stems. C. paradisi (grapefruit) stunt. C. aurantifolia (lime) die-back. C. aurantifolia (Seville orange) seedling yellows. C. reticulata (mandarin) decline. Aeglopsis chevalieri, Afraegle paniculata (Nigerian powder-flaskfruit )), Pamburus missionis, Passiflora gracilis (Annual passionflower), Citropsis gilletiana, Microcitrus australis Disorders: Tristeza Stem-pitting Seedling-yellows Lime dieback Diseases: Quick decline

L. Navarro, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Bugwood.org Closterovirus-Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Family: Closteroviridae Symptomology Sweet orange-(Sweet orange stem pitting strains) Sour orange-(Seedling yellows) severe stunting and yellowing Grapefruit-(Seedling yellows)severe stunting and yellowing , (Stempitting) stunted, the fruit is small and misshapen, and yields are considerably reduced; the wood of the trunk and large limbs is pitted with longitudinal depressions; in some instances, the main scaffold branches are twisted and distorted. Lime-(Lime die-back strain) vein flecking on young leaves, severe pitting of wood of twigs and

branches, stunting of trees, and dieback with eventual death Lemon-(Seedling yellows) severe stunting and yellowing Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Closterovirus-Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Lyle Buss, University of Florida Brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Lyle Buss, University of Florida Family: Closteroviridae Vectors: Brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida and Melon aphid, Aphis gossypii. Diagnostic techniques:

Visual symptoms Indexing on biological indicators Management: Disease-resistant cultivars Disease-resistant rootstocks (will not work on plants that virus attacks directly i.e. certain lime, grapefruit, pummelos, Pera sweet orange and others (Reuther, 1978) Possible cross-protection from less mild strains of tristeza virus L. Navarro, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Bugwood.org Tristeza virus affected fruit on right Closterovirus-Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Family: Closteroviridae Diagnostic techniques: Visual symptoms Indexing on biological indicators

UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic CTV petiole inclusions Diagnostic viral inclusions: All cytoplasmic Para-crystals Banded bodies Densely stained phloem with UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic CTV stem inclusions many vacuoles. UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic CTV root inclusions Cucumovirus-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

Family: Bromoviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped, round with icosahedral symmetry. The isometric capsid has a diameter of 29-29.33-30 nm. Capsids appear round, or hexagonal in outline. The capsomer arrangement is clearly visible, or is not obvious. The capsid consists of 32 capsomers. Virus preparations contain more than one particle component. Capsids all have the same appearance. (ICTV database). R.G. Milne, Istituto di Virologia, CRN, Torino, Italy.

Cucumovirus-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Family: Bromoviridae Hosts: Cucumber, Cucumis sativus and many other cucurbits mosaics and stunting, reduced fruit yield. Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum mosaic, reduction of leaf laminae ("fernleaf") and stunting. Spinach, Spinacia oleracea severe chlorosis and stunting. David B. Langston, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org CMV Infected cucumber

William M. Brown Jr., Bugwood.org CMV infected celery Cucumovirus-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Family: Bromoviridae Vectors: Aphids transmit in a nonpersistent manner Cucumber infected by Cucumber mosaic virus William M. Brown Jr., Bugwood.org William M. Brown Jr., Bugwood.org CMV infected cucumbers

Cucumovirus-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Family: Bromoviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Cytoplasmic Vacuolate Dr. R. G. Christie, UF IFAS Department of Plant Pathology UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Vesiculate Crystalline cubes Spheres Hollow spheres Dr. R. G. Christie, UF IFAS Department of Plant Pathology Begomovirus-Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) Family: Geminiviridae

Description: No official description General Begomovirus description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid is elongated and exhibits icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is geminate, or prolate in shape and has a diameter of 15-20 nm. Capsids appear round, or hexagonal in outline. The capsomer arrangement is clearly visible, or is not obvious. The capsid consists of 22 capsomers. With a length of 25-30 nm. Zucchini squash infected with Cucurbit leaf crumple virus. Note silverleaf symptoms in background due to feeding of immature whiteflies. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in716 Begomovirus-Cucurbit leaf

crumple virus (CuLCrV) Family: Geminiviridae Description: Hosts: Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Cantaloupe and Honeydew melon, Cucumis melo Squash and pumpkins, Cucurbita palmate and C. maxima, C. pepo Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Zucchini squash infected with Cucurbit leaf crumple virus. Note silverleaf symptoms in background due to feeding of immature whiteflies. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in716 Begomovirus-Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV)

Family: Geminiviridae Cucurbits that were not susceptible were acorn squash, ananas melon, butternut squash, casaba melon, Galia melon, golden crenshaw melon, and honeydew melon. Nonsusceptible crops included cotton, pepper, soybean, and tomato. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Cucurbit leaf crumple virus symptoms on cucumber Cucurbit leaf crumple virus symptoms on yellow straight-necked squash Begomovirus-Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV)

Vector: Silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii-vector of cucurbit leaf crumple virus. Photo by Lyle Buss-University of Florida Begomovirus-Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) Diagnostic viral inclusions: Nuclear Bean golden mosaic virus inclusions (pictured) look very similar to Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Rounded dense bodies R. Cullen and M. Gooch, UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Ring-shaped (rare)

Brittle Crystals Bean golden mosaic virus inclusions (pictured) close-up R. Cullen and M. Gooch, UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Potexvirus-Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) Family: Flexiviridae Description: Virions have a simple construction (round or elongated or spherical, unenveloped virions); consist(s) of a capsid (including inner and outer capsid). Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated; exhibits helical symmetry; capsid. Capsid shape of elongated unenveloped virion or tail of phage is filamentous, is flexuous. Elongated capsid,

nucleocapsid or phage tail is cross-striated. Elongated capsids, nucleocapsids or tails have only or longest length(s) of 470 to 580 nm; is 13 nm wide. Axial canal is distinct or indistinct, 3.4 to 12 with median 6.3 nm in diameter. Basic helix is obvious or obscure. Pitch of helix is 2.8 to 3.5 with median 3.331 nm. Crude virus preparation contains few virions or many virions. R. I. B. Francki Department of Plant Pathology, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia Cymbidium mosaic virus Virus particles from purified preparation in uranyl acetate. Bar represents 500 nm. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=27 Potexvirus-Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)

Cymbidium mosaic virus symptoms Family: Flexiviridae Hosts: Cymbidium ssp. mosaic, necrosis. Cattleya ssp. mosaic, flower necrosis. Phalaenopsis ssp. mosaic, water soaked local lesions. Vanda ssp. chlorotic flecks. Epidendrum ssp., Laelia ssp., Laeliocattleya ssp., Oncidium ssp., Zygopetalum ssp., Vanilla fragrans Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Cymbidium mosaic symptoms in Cymbidium leaves. http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repositoryfiles/ca601p3-71680.pdf Potexvirus-Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) Family: Flexiviridae Viral inclusions: Widely distributed in host tissues Aggregates of virus particles Long axis parallel Banded bodies Can be susceptible to destruction Dense bodies Para-crystals Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Cymbidium mosaic virus-banded inclusions Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Cymbidium mosaic viral inclusions (see arrows) Potyvirus-Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 750 nm (approximately). Axial canal is indistinct. Basic helix is obscure.

Zettler, Univ. Florida 1970 Filamentous virus particles mounted in phosphotungatate.. Potyvirus-Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Aglaonema, Alocasia, Amorphophallus, Arisaema, Caladium, Cyrtosperma ssp. mosaic. Cryptocoryne, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, Richardia, Zantedeschia ssp. mosaic and leaf malformation. Colocasia, Xanthosoma ssp. mosaic, chlorotic feathering. Comments on host and host range: there are conflicting reports on the susceptibility of non-aroids; in European studies some are susceptible, but, in tests Florida and

Venezuela, non-aroids were not infected (Zettler and Hartman, 1986). Photo by: F.W. Zettler Chlorosis of Philodendron selloum leaf N.J.Ko Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Dasheen mosaic virus in Taro Potyvirus-Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Aglaonema, Alocasia, Amorphophallus, Arisaema, Caladium, Cyrtosperma ssp. mosaic. Cryptocoryne, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, Richardia, Zantedeschia ssp. mosaic and leaf

malformation. Colocasia, Xanthosoma ssp. mosaic, chlorotic feathering. Comments on host and host range: there are conflicting reports on the susceptibility of non-aroids; in European studies some are susceptible, but, in tests Florida and Venezuela, non-aroids were not infected (Zettler and Hartman, 1986). Photo by: F.W. Zettler Mosaic and distortion of P. selloum leaf N.J.Ko Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Dasheen mosaic virus in Dieffenbachia Potyvirus-Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) Family: Potyviridae

Hosts: Aglaonema, Alocasia, Amorphophallus, Arisaema, Caladium, Cyrtosperma ssp. mosaic. Cryptocoryne, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, Richardia, Zantedeschia ssp. mosaic and leaf malformation. Colocasia, Xanthosoma ssp. mosaic, chlorotic feathering. Comments on host and host range: there are conflicting reports on the susceptibility of non-aroids; in European studies some are susceptible, but, in tests Florida and Venezuela, non-aroids were not infected (Zettler and Hartman, 1986). ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database Mosaic of taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf Potyvirus-Dasheen mosaic

virus (DsMV) Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in C-section Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleoprotein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections Florida Department of Agriculture and

Consumer Services I = Cylindrical Inclusions N=Nucleus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database Electron micrograph of cylindrical inclusions in cell of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliotiana). Bar represents 500 nm. Hostuviroid-Hop stunt viroid (Citrus viroid II) (HSVd) Family: Pospiviroidae Description: Viroids are unencapsidated, low molecular weight, circular, single-stranded infectious RNAs pathogenic to plants. Sequences are the primary basis for comparison. The sequence of the central conserved region allows all characterised viroids to be classed into four groups. Variation occurs within each

viroid "species" and an arbitrary level of 90% sequence similarity currently separates variants from species. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database Photo of potato spindle tuber viroid which closely resembles Hop stunt viroid (Citrus viroid II) Hostuviroid-Hop stunt viroid (Citrus viroid II) (HSVd) Family: Pospiviroidae Hosts: Hop stunt viroid Hop stunt viroid - almond Hop stunt viroid - apricot Hop stunt viroid - citrus Hop stunt viroid - cucumber Hop stunt viroid - grapevine Hop stunt viroid - peach Hop stunt viroid - pear Hop stunt viroid - plum

Citrus cachexia viroid Cucumber pale fruit viroid Peach dapple viroid Plum dapple viroid Green streaks observed under cracks induced by Hop stunt viroid and Citrus viroid IV in trifoliate orange photo by C. Vernire et al. http://www.apsnet.org/publications/imageresources/Pages/ Nov_88-11-1.aspx David Gent, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org Common hops (Humulus lupulus L.) A common hop plant showing symptoms of hop stunt viroid infection in a field at Oregon, USA. Tospovirus-Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) Family: Bunyaviridae Description: Virions consist of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. Virus

capsid is enveloped. Virions are spherical to pleomorphic. Surface projections are embedded in a lipid bilayer that is 5 nm thick. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The ribonucleocapsid is filamentous and has a width of 2-2.5 nm. Nucleocapsids are circular. Tospovirus-Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) Family: Bunyaviridae Hosts: Impatiens spp. most leaves symptomless, some necrotic spots with necrotic rings in young leaves. Other hosts: Gloxinia Gerbera daisy Oncidium orchid

Chrysanthemum Tomato Coleus Wild geranium Department of Plant Pathology Archive, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org Impatiens necrotic spot virus symptoms on chrysanthemum Department of Plant Pathology Archive, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org Impatients necrotic spot virus symptoms on coleus Tospovirus-Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) Family: Bunyaviridae Hosts: Impatiens spp. most leaves symptomless, some necrotic spots with necrotic rings in young leaves.

Other hosts: Gloxinia Gerbera daisy Oncidium orchid Chrysanthemum Tomato Coleus Wild geranium Department of Plant Pathology Archive, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org Impatiens necrotic spot virus symptoms on gloxinia Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org Impatients necrotic spot virus symptoms on tomato fruit Tospovirus-Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) Family: Bunyaviridae

Vector: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Lyle Buss University of Florida Tospovirus-Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) Family: Bunyaviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Vacuolate Dense, irregular with projections Crystalline All photographs by Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Tobamovirus-Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) Family: Unassigned Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is rod-shaped, straight with a clear modal length with a length of mostly 300 nm (but also shorter, broken virions, width of 18 nm. Axial canal is distinct. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database Tobamovirus-Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) Family: Unassigned

Hosts: Vector: Virus is not transmitted by a vector. Virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation. Juliana Frettas-Astua Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Juliana Frettas-Astua Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Tobamovirus-Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) Family: Unassigned Diagnostic viral inclusions:

All cytoplasmic Hexagonal plates Virus particles Stacked plates Virus particles Paracrystals Virus particles - old infection X - Bodies Vacuolate Photograph bu Nan-Jing Ko Tobamovirus inclusions stain in Azure A stain with heat only. Photograph by NanJing Ko Photograph bu Nan-Jing Ko Inclusions stained with Orange Green Potyvirus-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)

Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/ nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 760-800 nm and a width of 12 nm. Alberto Pantoja, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org Potyvirus-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Vector:

Virus is transmitted by aphids. Virus is also transmitted by mechanical inoculation; not transmitted by seeds. Alberto Pantoja, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org Potyvirus-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleo-protein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions

Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Pospiviroid-Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Family: Pospiviroidae Hosts: Nucleic acid is nonencapsidated, circular, single-stranded RNA ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database Potato spindle tuber viroid Pospiviroid-Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)

Family: Pospiviroidae Hosts: Potato, Solanum tuberosum Tomato, Solanum esculentum R.P. Singh, Bugwood.org Potato cv Kennebec, Solanum tuberosum, center plant infected with Potato spindle tuber viroid, outer two plants are healthy Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive, British Crown, Bugwood.org Tomato, Solanum esculentum infected by Potato spindle tuber viroid Pospiviroid-Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Family: Pospiviroidae Hosts:

Potato, Solanum tuberosum Tomato, Solanum esculentum Plant Protection Service Archive, Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org Potatoes infected with potato spindle tuber viroid. Healthy potato on left others diseased USDA Agricultural Research Service Archive, USDA ARS, Bugwood.org First and third rows of potatoes from top are healthy; second and fourth rows are infected with the potato spindle tuber viroid Potyvirus-Potato virus Y (PVY) Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/ nucleocapsid is elongated with

helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 684 nm (from purified preparations (Delgado-Sanchez and Grogan, 1966)), or 730 nm and a width of 11 nm. Axial canal is indistinct; 2-3 nm in diameter. Basic helix is obscure. Pitch of helix is 3.3 nm (Varma et al., 1968). Rothamsted Research. Potato virus Y Potyvirus-Potato virus Y (PVY) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Potato, Solanum tuberosum Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum Pepper, Capsicum

annuum Vector: transmitted by aphids, mechanical means or transmission by grafting. Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org Rugose leaf symptoms on potato infected with potato virus Y Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org Potato infected with potato virus Y Cylindrical Potyvirus-Potato virus Y (PVY) Amorphous Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Microcrystals

Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleo-protein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Stomata guard cells filled with inclusions of PVY Ipomovirus-Squash vein

yellowing virus (SqVYV) Family: Potyviridae Description: The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. Ipomovirus-Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) Family: Potyviridae Squash Vein Yellowing Virus, Causal Agent of Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida Hosts: The host range of SqVYV appears to be limited to cucurbits including two weedy varieties of cucurbits found in Florida, Momordica charantia L. (Balsamapple) and Melothria pendula L. (creeping cucumber) (Adkins et al. 2008). These weeds may be important

reservoirs for SqVYV and help it to survive between crops. Vectors: Whitefly, Bemesia tabaci Scott Adkins, 2008 . Plant Disease Early symptoms of WVD. Photography credit: Scott Adkins http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/pathology/pathcirc/pp407.pdf Scott Adkins,, FDACS DPI Symptoms several weeks later. Photography credit: Scott Adkins http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/pathology/pathcirc/pp407.pdf Ipomovirus-Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: The host range of SqVYV appears to be limited to cucurbits including two weedy varieties of cucurbits found in Florida,

Momordica charantia L. (Balsam-apple) and Melothria pendula L. (creeping cucumber) (Adkins et al. 2008). These weeds may be important reservoirs for SqVYV and help it to survive between crops. Vectors: Whitefly, Bemesia tabaci Scott Adkins, 2008 . Plant Disease Melothria pendula a cucurbit weed that can potentially serve as a viral reservoir Scott Adkins,, FDACS DPI Watermelon rind damaged by the Squash vein yellowing virus causing WVD symptoms. Photography credit: Scott Adkins http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/pathology/p athcirc/pp407.pdf

Ipomovirus-Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in C-section Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleo-protein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Svcs., Department of Plant Industry CI=Cylindrical inclusions; N=Nucleus Squash vein yellowing virus http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/pathology/ florida_viruses/Cucurbits/SqVYV/SqVYVpage.htm Potyvirus-Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) Family: Potyviridae Description: Morphology Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 730-755 nm and a width of 13 nm. Axial canal

is indistinct. Basic helix is obscure. Filamentous particles of sugarcane mosaic virus strain H mounted in phosphotungstate. Bar represents 200 nm. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/ showfig.php?dpvno=88&figno=05 Potyvirus-Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Saccharum sp. systemic mosaic. Sorghum bicolor necrotic local lesion, then systemic mosaic, necrosis. S. halepense systemic mosaic.

Zea mays systemic mosaic, ringspots. Most dicotyledonous plants. Photograph 1 Sugarcane variety C.P.31-294 systemically infected by sugarcane mosaic virus strain B. (Courtesy A. G. Gillaspie.) http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showfig.php?dpvno=88&figno=01 Photograph 2 Sugarcane variety C.P.31-294 systemically infected by sugarcane mosaic virus strain D. (Courtesy A. G. Gillaspie.) http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showfig.php?dpvno=88&figno=02 Photograph 6 Systemic necrosis produced by sugarcane mosaic virus strain A in sorghum. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showfig.php?dpvno=88&figno=06 Photograph 7 Local necrotic lesions produced in Atlas sorghum by sugarcane mosaic virus strain E. (Courtesy J. L. Dean.) http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showfig.php? dpvno=88&figno=07 Potyvirus-Sugarcane mosaic

virus (SCMV) Family: Potyviridae Vector: Virus is transmitted nonpersitently by the aphids: Dactynotus ambrosiae, Rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae, Corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Toxoptera graminum. Transmission: Virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation; transmitted by grafting; transmitted by seeds; not transmitted by pollen. Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia, Bugwood.org Corn leaf aphid , Rhopalosiphum maidis

Potyvirus-Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleo-protein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections Cylindrical inclusions of sugar cane mosaic in Zea mays (corn). The inclusion at the far right is next to a nucleus.

Potyvirus-Tobacco etch virus (TEV) Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 730-750 nm and a width of 12-13 nm. Basic helix is obvious (in UF). Potyvirus photograph from IACR Rothamsted Potyvirus-Tobacco etch virus (TEV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts:

Cassia obtusifolia leaf mottling, malformation and necrosis, stunting and reduced seed yield. Capsicum annuum mottling, mosaic and leaf malformation, fruit malformation, stunting. Datura stramonium leaf mottling, vein banding and malformation, suppression of fruit spines. Lycopersicon esculentum leaf mottling and distortion, severe yield reductions. Nicotiana tabacum mottling and necrotic leaf etching. Physalis ssp. leaf chlorosis. Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Potyvirus-Tobacco etch virus

(TEV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Cassia obtusifolia leaf mottling, malformation and necrosis, stunting and reduced seed yield. Capsicum annuum mottling, mosaic and leaf malformation, fruit malformation, stunting. Datura stramonium leaf mottling, vein banding and malformation, suppression of fruit spines. Lycopersicon esculentum leaf mottling and distortion, severe yield reductions. Nicotiana tabacum mottling and necrotic leaf etching. Physalis ssp. leaf chlorosis. Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org Tobacco etch virus symptoms on tobacco

Potyvirus-Tobacco etch virus (TEV) Family: Potyviridae Vector: Aphids especially Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Lyle Buss University of Florida Winged green peach aphid Myzus persicae Lyle Buss University of Florida Adult female green peach aphid Myzus persicae Potyvirus-Tobacco etch virus (TEV) Family: Potyviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions:

Microcrystals Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleo-protein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections Pinwheel Inclusions Nucleus

UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Inclusion Tobamovirus-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Family: No family assigned Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is rod-shaped, straight with a clear modal length with a length of 300 nm and a width of 18 nm. Axial canal is distinct; 2 nm in diameter. Basic helix is obvious. Pitch of helix is 2.3 nm. Dr. Robley Williams

Tobamovirus-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Family: No family assigned Host: Nicotiana tabacum leaf mosaic, severe crop losses. Also found in many other plant species. Vector/Transmission: Virus is not transmitted by a vector. Virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation; transmitted by grafting; transmitted by contact between hosts; transmitted by seeds (occasionally transmitted through the testa, but not through the embryo, not transmitted by pollen. Transmitted by dodder, Cuscuta campestris, C. japonica and C. subinclusa Milton Zaitlin Symptoms of TMV in Nicotiana tabacum cv Turkish

Samsun. Photographed three weeks post-inoculation. Milton Zaitlin Local necrotic lesions produced upon TMV infection in Nicotiana tabacum of the NN genotype. Photographed one week post-inoculation. Tobamovirus-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Family: No family assigned Diagnostic viral inclusions: All cytoplasmic Hexagonal plates Virus particles Stacked plates Virus particles Paracrystals Virus particles old infection X - Bodies Vacuolate

Dr. R. G. Christie, UF IFAS Department of Plant Pathology Tobamovirus-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Family: No family assigned Diagnostic viral inclusions: All cytoplasmic Hexagonal plates Virus particles Stacked plates Virus particles Paracrystals Virus particles old infection X - Bodies Vacuolate UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Dr. R. G. Christie, UF IFAS

Department of Plant Pathology Tobravirus-Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Family: No family assigned Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is rodshaped, straight with a clear modal length with a length of 46-114 nm (T), or 180-197 nm (B, width of 22 nm. Axial canal is distinct; 4 nm in diameter. Basic helix is obvious. Pitch of helix is 2.5 nm. IACR Rothamsted Tobravirus-Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)

Family: No family assigned Hosts: Stellaria media, Viola arvensis few symptoms, mottling. Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea chlorotic or necrotic local lesions; systemic mottle. Capsicum annuum ringspots or line patterns. Solanum tuberosum necrotic local lesions; systemic chlorotic or necrotic spots and streaks. Nicotiana tabacum necrotic local lesions, necrotic or chlorotic ringspots; systemic necrosis, ringspots or line patterns, mottling. Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Tulipa sp., Hyacinthus sp. mottling. G. Chastagner1 and H. R. Pappu, Washington State Univ. Symptoms of Tobacco rattle virus on peony

Ben Lockhart, University of Minnesota Extension Tobacco Rattle virus on hosta 'ananuma' Tobravirus-Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Family: No family assigned Transmission/ Vectors: Virus is transmitted by a vector. Virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation; transmitted by grafting; not transmitted by contact between hosts; transmitted by seeds (up to 40% in Viola arvensis or only to 1% in Capsella bursa-pastoris). Vector Transmission: Virus is transmitted by nematodes; family Trichodoridae; Paratrichodorus allius, P. anemones, P. christiei, P. nanus, P. pachydermus, P. teres, Trichodorus minor, T. primitivus, T. viruliferus. Anterior of Paratrichodorus minor a vector

of Tobacco rattle virus http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/ nemaplex/Taxadata/G097S1.HTM Tobravirus-Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) Family: No family assigned Diagnostic viral inclusions: Inclusions of Tobacco rattle virus in subveinal epidermal cells of an inoculated leaf (Nicotiana tabaccum) stained with Azure A. (Pictures taken from "Light and Electron Microscopy of Plant Virus Inclusions" by R. G. Christie and J. R. Edwardson) Nepovirus-Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Family: Comoviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not

enveloped, round with icosahedral symmetry. The isometric capsid has a diameter of 25-29 nm (virions may swell at pH 8.0). Capsids appear hexagonal in outline. The capsomer arrangement is not obvious. Nepovirus-Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Family: Comoviridae Hosts: Cucumis sativus, Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum necrotic spots, mottling, chlorotic ringspots and vein banding. Virginia Tech Learning Resources

Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org Tobacco ringspot virus symptoms on tobacco Virginia Tech Learning Resources Center, Virginia Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Tobacco ringspot virus symptoms on bean Nepovirus-Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Family: Comoviridae Vector: Trichodorus ssp., a nematode vector of Tobacco ringspot virus. http:// plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/Nemaplex/images/Trichodorus6.JPG Anterior view of Trichodorus ssp. nematode http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/Nemaplex/images/TrichodorusAnt.JPG

Nepovirus-Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Family: Comoviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: Vacuolate - Vesiculate Virus crystals & aggregates Xylem blockage Uneven distribution Glandular hair cells Guard cells Phloem Sub-veinal UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Irregular vacuolate Irregular non-vacuolate Crystalloid Microcrystal UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Nicotiana benthamiana 1000X

Crinivirus-Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) Family: Closteroviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a length of 850-900 nm and a width of 12 nm. Crinivirus-Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) Family: Closteroviridae Hosts: Lycopersicon esculentum interveinal yellowing, necrosis and severe yield loss.

tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum), tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa), potato (Solanum tuberosum), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and petunia (Petunia hybrida). Vector: Trialeurodes vaporariorum transmission by Bemisia spp. Is uncertain W. M. Wintermantel, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA, USA. W. M. Wintermantel, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA, USA. Tomato plant infected with Tomato infectious chlorosis virus showing interveinal chlorosis and mild necrosis on leaflet

http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/emergingviru ses.htm Tomato plant infected with Tomato infectious chlorosis virus showing interveinal chlorosis and mild necrosis on leaflet http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/ emergingviruses.htm Crinivirus-Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) Family: Closteroviridae Diagnostic viral inclusions: All cytoplasmic Paracrystals Banded bodies Densely stained phloem with many vacuoles. Tospovirus-Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

Family: Bunyaviridae Description: Virions consist of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. Virus capsid is enveloped. Virions are spherical to pleomorphic measuring 80-100 nm in diameter. The envelope surrounds three nucleocapsids. Surface projections are distinctive spikes that are surrounded by a prominent fringe. Surface projections are embedded in a lipid bilayer that is 5 nm thick. Surface projections are 5-10 nm long. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated and exhibits helical symmetry. The ribonucleocapsid is filamentous with a length of 200-3000 nm (depending on arrangement) and a width of 22.5 nm. Nucleocapsids are circular.

IACR Rothamsted Tomato spotted wilt virus Tospovirus-Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Family: Bunyaviridae Hosts: Ananas comosus, Bidens pilosa, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Helianthus annuus, Ipomoea congesta, Lactuca sativa, Malva parviflora, Nicandra physalodes, Phaseolus vulgaris, Physalis peruviana, Zinnia elegans, Arachis hypogaea, Canavalia gladiata, C. obtusifolia, C. occidentalis, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium triflorum, Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Tephrosia purpurea, Vicia faba, Vigna mungo, V. radiata, V. unguiculata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum

melongena, S. capsicastrum, S. tuberosum and many other species Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org Tospovirus-Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Family: Bunyaviridae Symptoms: necrotic and chlorotic local lesions, systemic wilting, necrosis, spotting, streaking, mosaic, mottling, leaf shape malformation, vein yellowing, ringspots, line patterns,

yellow netting and flower colour-breaking. David B. Langston, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org Tomato spotted wilt symptoms on pepper leaves David B. Langston, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org Tomato spotted wilt symptoms on pepper Tospovirus-Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Family: Bunyaviridae Vector: Nine species are reported as vectors: Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips); F schultzei, F fusca (tobacco thrips); Thrips tabaci (onion thrips); T setosus, T

moultoni; F tenuicornis, Lithothrips dorsalis, and Scirtothrips dorsalis. The first four are considered the most important vectors because of their wide distribution and the overlapping host ranges of these species and TSWV. J.P. Sanderson, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Western flower thrips larvae, Frankliniella occidentalis Lyle Buss, University of Florida Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Tospovirus-Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Family: Bunyaviridae

Diagnostic viral inclusions: UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Vacuolate Tomato spotted wilt virus inclusions Dense, Irregular with projections Crystalline UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Begomovirus-Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TSWV) Family: Geminiviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid is elongated and exhibits icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is geminate and has a

diameter of 20 nm. Capsids appear hexagonal in outline. The capsomer arrangement is not obvious. With a length of dimers 30 nm. Begomovirus-Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TSWV) Family: Geminiviridae Hosts: In tomato, symptoms are more severe when infected at an earlier age and vary somewhat among the different cultivars. In tomato, upward curling of leaves; mottling and often chlorotic leaf margins. In tomato, leaves are reduced in size. In tomato, plants are stunted.

Flower abscission in tomato resulting in greatly reduced fruit set. No symptoms are observed in pepper. Don Ferrin, Louisiana State Univ. Agric. Ctr. Bugwood.org Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Svcs, Bugwood.org Begomovirus-Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TSWV) Family: Geminiviridae Vector: Virus is transmitted by immature and adult white flies, Bemesia tabaci. Virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation (poorly, transmitted by grafting; not

transmitted by contact between hosts). Don Ferrin, Louisiana State Univ. Agric. Ctr. Bugwood.org Begomovirus-Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TSWV) Family: Geminiviridae Diagnostic viral inclusion: Nuclear Rounded dense bodies Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Svcs, Bugwood.org Ring-shaped (rare) Brittle crystals UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic UF IFAS Extension Plant Disease Clinic Potyvirus-Watermelon mosaic

virus (WMV-2) Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/ nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a length of 730765 nm. Axial canal is indistinct. Basic helix is obscure. Purcifull & Batchelor, Bull. Fla agric. Exp. Stn, 1977 Flexuous particles in leaf extract, negatively stained with potassium phosphotungstate. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showfig.php? dpvno=293&figno=05 Potyvirus-Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2)

Family: Potyviridae Hosts: Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis melo, C. sativus, Citrullus lanatus and some legumes mosaic, mottling, leaf shape malformation. Persistent symptoms. Both Photographs by: Texas A&M Extension Service http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/publications/cucurbitproblemsolver/fruit/watermelon_mosaic.html Potyvirus-Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2) Family: Potyviridae Vector: Virus is transmitted by insects of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; Myzus persicae, Aphis craccivora, Aphis citricola, Aphis

gossypii; at least 38 species of aphid in 19 genera transmit watermelon mosaic virus 2. Lyle Buss, Univ. of Florida Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Lyle Buss, Univ. of Florida Cotton/Melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Potyvirus-Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2) Family: Potyviridae Viral diagnostic inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions

Protein & ribonucleoprotein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections Inclusion of WMV in pumpkin epidermal cells (image courtesty of R.Cullen and M Gooch) Inclusions of WMV in pumpkin (C.A. Baker) Potyvirus-Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)

Family: Potyviridae Description: Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 750 nm and a width of 11 nm. Axial canal is indistinct. Basic helix is obscure. V. Lisa Istituto di Fitovirologia applicata del C.N.R., Torino, Italy H. Lecoq Station de Pathologie Vegetale INRA, Montfavet, France Purified Zucchini yellow mosiac virus particles in uranyl acetate.

Potyvirus-Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) Leaf deformation, shoe-stringing and mosaic in naturally infected zucchini squash. Family: Potyviridae Hosts: zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Vector: transmitted in non-persistent manner by Aphis citricola , A. gossypii, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae . Fruit deformation in field-raised /infected zucchini squash after infection by ZYMV ..

Potyvirus-Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) Family: Potyviridae Hosts: zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Vector: transmitted in non-persistent manner by Aphis citricola , A. gossypii, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae . Potyvirus-Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) Family: Potyviridae Viral diagnostic inclusions: Cytoplasmic cylindirical inclusions Proteinaceous Pinwheel and scrolls in Csection Laminated aggregate

Amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions Protein & ribonucleoprotein Irregular in shape Vary in size Vary in number Nuclear inclusions Proteinaceous Most crystalline Cytoplasmic microbodies Healthy cells Proteinaceous crystals increase in number & aggregate with some Potyvirus infections Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Svcs. Epidermal leaf strip of squash infected with ZYMV stained in OG. (I=cylindrical inclusions, N=nucleus)

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