Unit 6: Stress & Anger Management I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Concepts of Stress
Situational Factors Affecting Stress Personal Factors Affecting Stress Mediational Model of Stress Implications for Stress Interventions Relaxation as a Multidimensional Response Somatic Relaxation Cognitive Relaxation Unit 6: Stress & Anger Management IX. X.
XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. Thought and Emotion Cognitive Distortions A-B-C Theory of Emotion
Cognitive Restructuring Self-Instructional Training Integrated Coping Response Rehearsal of Coping Responses Understanding Burnout Coping with Burnout Definitions of Stress Stress as a Stimulus (stressors) Stress as a Response (feeling stressed) Stress as a Person-Situation Transaction
A Transactional Definition of Stress Stress is a particular relationship or transaction between a person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his/her resources and/or endangering his/her well being, (Lazarus and Folkman) Three Types of Appraisals Primary
What is the nature of the stressor? Secondary What kinds of resources do I posses to cope with this stressor? Reappraisal Reassessment of situational given additional information and/or secondary appraisal Situational Factors Affecting Stress
Controllability Personal Factors Affecting Stress Motives, Goals, & Values Beliefs Personal Control Beliefs Existential Beliefs Personality Factors: Hardiness Coping Skills
The Three Cs of Hardiness Challenge Commitment Control Stages of Coping Anticipatory Impact Post Impact Types of Coping
Problem-Focused Coping Emotion-Focused Coping Seeking Social Support Possible Coping Resources
Physical Resources Beliefs Problem -Solving Skills Social Support Social Skills Material Resources Characteristics of Effective Coping People with effective coping skills have complex repertoires (good variety) that are
flexibly applied and readily generalizable to different situations. Coping Defined Coping is a process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal or external demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding a persons resources. Bensons Relaxation Response
Repetition of a word, phrase, mantra, prayer, or muscular activity Passive disregard towards thoughts that will arise Helpful to do in a quiet place and in a comfortable position Conditions Impacted by Invoking the Relaxation Response Angina pectoris (symptom of heart
diseas) Other Useful Relaxation Techniques Smile when you feel tense Have fun and enjoy pressure-filled and adverse situations Intentionally set up stressful situations Slow down and take your time Stay focused on the present Create and stick to a plan
Cognitive Distortions All-or-Nothing Thinking Overgeneralization Mental Filter Disqualifying the Positive
Jumping to Conclusions Mind Reading Fortune Teller Error Cognitive Distortions (Continued)
Magnification & Minimization Emotional Reasoning Should Statements Labeling & Mislabeling Personalization Depressogenic Attribution Pattern Negative Cognitive Triad The A-B-Cs (or A-C-Bs) of Emotion
A Activating Event C Emotional Consequences Emotional reaction, presumably caused by irrational thinking B Beliefs Usually irrational if dealing with negative emotions Ellis Core Irrational Belief It is awful, terrible, and catastrophic when things are not the way that I demand that
they be. Other Common Irrational Thoughts Its a dire necessity for an adult to be loved by everyone for everything he or she does. One should be thoroughly competent, successful, and achieving in all possible respects. Certain people are wicked and villainous when they do not behave as I demand they should, and for this, they should be punished. If something is threatening, I should be terribly upset
about it. Musts and Shoulds Possible Stress Reducing Thoughts I may not like this situation, but I can certainly stand it. Unfortunately, people dont always behave the way I want them to. Thats the way it goes - no use getting upset. I dont have to be perfect. I can make mistakes too. I dont have to please everybody.
Life is too short to let things like this make me miserable. Analyzing Thoughts and Feelings (see Smith pages 68-69) Activating Event What happened? Describe the event. Emotional Consequences
How did you feel when the event occurred? What was your emotional response? Beliefs What were you thinking? What were you telling yourself? Was any of this irrational? Dispute
Counter what you told yourself. What is a more productive thing to think? Self-Instructional Training: Anticipatory Stage This will be frustrating. Just plan on how you can keep your cool and deal with it without blowing up. No negative self-statements. Just think and plan rationally
Self-Instructional Training: Impact Stage One step at a time. You can handle this. Just relax and think clearly. Keep your cool. No need to loose your tempter. Relax. Self-Instructional Training: Post-Impact Stage Those damn ideas. Theyre the problem. When you control them, you control your
anger. Go back over what you did. What worked and what can be done better next time? Way to go! Its getting better every time. Youre controlling the anger instead of it controlling you. Burnout Defined The psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction.
Symptoms of Burnout Low motivation or energy Concentration problems Lack of caring Disturbed sleep Physical and/or mental exhaustion
Substance abuse Changes in values Emotional isolation Increased Anxiety Impaired performance Situational Factors Contributing to Burnout
High or conflicting demands Low social support Low autonomy Low rewards Low demands Personal Factors Contributing to Burnout
Extreme dedication to work or profession High trait anxiety Perfectionistic or unrealistic goals
Type A personality Too flexible or rigid in coping skills Non-discriminating locus of control Feeling isolated and lonely Coping with Burnout: The Process Awareness of the Problem Taking Responsibility for Changing the situation and/or Yourself Discriminating the Changeable from the Unchangeable
Developing New Strategies and Coping Skills Coping With Burnout: Specific Recommendations
Examining Coping Patterns Goal-Setting and Clarifying Priorities Acknowledging Vulnerabilities Compartmentalizing Work and Non-work Decompression Time/Time Off Maintaining Physical Fitness Building Social Support Coping With Burnout: Specific Recommendations
Challenging/Changing Maladaptive Attitudes and Beliefs Using Burnout to Promote Personal Growth Learn Mental Coping Skills Choose to Have Fun Unit 7: Attention Control I. II. III.
IV. V. VI. Introduction Effective Attention Attention Control Principles Things that Disrupt Attention Suggestions for Improving Attention Attention & Pain Tolerance
Effective Attention Voluntary focus on relevant cues Maintaining focus over time Shifting the focus of attention when necessary Screening out irrelevant stimuli
Effective Attention: Information Processing Attending to relevant cues Integrating cues within memory Responding appropriately Choking Defined Because of excessive arousal, an individuals performance progressively deteriorates and the the person cant regain control of it High arousal
Attention shifts towards the persons dominant attentional style Attention goes internal and narrow (towards negative thoughts and feelings) Things that Disrupt Attention: Internal Distracters
Thoughts about the past Thoughts about the future Pressure and choking under pressure Over-Analyzing (Paralysis through analysis) Fatigue Lack of motivation Things that Disrupt Attention:
Use simulations Use cue or trigger words Employ non-judgmental thinking Establish routines Develop performance plans Practice eye control Use self-monitoring
Suggestions for Improving Attention (Continued) Over-learn behaviors
Turn failure into success (in your mind) Practice shifting attention Park distracting thoughts Increasing focusing and refocusing skills Use technology (EEG, biofeedback, etc) Use mental skills (goals, imagery, etc) Pain Control Strategies Dissociative Strategies Direct attention away from painful stimuli Examples: counting backwards by 17s, imagining
you are somewhere else, watching an engaging movie Associative Strategies Direct attention towards painful stimuli, but in a detached, non-emotional way Internal Broad-Internal
Real listening is based on the intention to Understand someone. Enjoy someone. Learn something.
Give help, solace, or support. Twelve Blocks to Listening Comparing
Mind Reading Rehearsing Filtering Judging Daydreaming
Identifying Advising Sparring Being Right Derailing Placating Four Steps to Effective Listening Active Listening
Paraphrasing Clarifying Feedback (immediate, honest, supportive, clear, & concise) Listening with Empathy Listening with Openness Listening with Awareness Six Rules for Effective Listening Maintain good eye contact
Lean slightly forward Reinforce the speaker by nodding and paraphrasing Clarify by asking questions Actively move away from distractions Be committed to understanding Pseudo-Listening Intentions To listen in order to buy time to think of what to say To listen for specific pieces of information,
ignoring the rest To listen because we think we should (halflistening) Unit 8: Communication I. II. III. IV. V. Communication as a Life Skill
The Communication Process Listening Expressing Nonverbal Communication Kinds of Expression
Observations (Facts) Thoughts (Conclusions drawn from the facts) Feelings (Emotions) Needs (What would help or please you?) Value Judgments Comparative appraisals that are based on standards or norms They include judgments about goodness/badness, positive/negative, etc Often related to moral or ethical
considerations Example: It is wrong(or appropriate) to assist homeless individuals. Theories A set of statements that specifies how different factors are related to one another Usually created to explain the causes of something Example: Pam gets very nervous when she drives her car at night. She must have poor
night vision. Beliefs Statements at a cognitive level that are representative of psychological facts The statements are perceived as facts themselves, but there is insufficient foundation to form irrefutable knowledge or truth Example: Openness is essential to a good marriage.
Opinions Conclusions that are based primarily on personal bias or intuition, rather than substantive facts. Some overlap with value judgments Example: Faculty meetings are a waste of time. Guidelines for Sending Effective Messages
Be direct Be immediate Own your messages (I and My) Be complete and accurate Distinguish between observations and
thoughts Clearly state your feelings and needs Whole Messages include what you observe, think, feel, and need. are an important part of good relationships and effective expression. To send whole messages, ask yourself, Have I
expressed what I know to be the facts? expressed and clearly labeled my thoughts? expressed my feelings? shared my needs? Guidelines for Sending Effective Messages
Keep messages congruent Focus on one thing at a time Be straight (avoid hidden agendas) Be supportive Fit the receivers frame of reference
Be redundant Obtain feedback Hidden Agendas
Im good Im good (but youre not) Youre good (but Im not) Im helpless, I suffer Im blameless Im fragile Im tough I know it all
Tactics to Avoid When Being Supportive Global labels Sarcasm
Dragging up the past Negative comparisons Judgmental you messages Threats Areas of Verbal Message Impact (Albert Mehrabian) 7% Verbal (actual words) 38% Paralanguage (pitch, volume, rhythm) 55% Body language (mostly facial expressions)
Paralanguage (the way in words are spoken) Pitch Resonance
Articulation Tempo Volume Rhythm Body Language (Kinesics)
Gestures Posture Touching behavior Facial expressions Eye behavior Unit 9: Conflict Resolution I. II.
The Nature of Conflict Five Approaches Taken in Response to Conflict III. Dos and Donts for Resolving Conflicts What People Bring to the Conflict Situation
Unmet Needs Beliefs Past Grievances Favorite Solutions Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and Their Alternatives) It is impossible to solve anything. Life is too complex and beyond the capacity of humans to deal with.
It is possible to solve many problem. Humans have the capacity to deal with life and its complexities I feel helpless, so lets argue. Im powerful, can adapt to change, and dont need to argue Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and Their Alternatives) This is my territory/property. I own this. This is our territory, our property.
Stand fast and dont ever give up. Negotiate and be willing to let go if necessary. Things dont ever work out. Many things do work out. You cant expect to much Expect a lot of yourself and others. Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and
Their Alternatives) Someone has to suffer. Much of human suffering can be eliminated or avoided. Dont ask dumb questions. There are no dumb questions. There is not enough time There is plenty of time. People act in the present and it is always now.
Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and Their Alternatives) This cant make a difference It is impossible to not make a difference This is just the way it is. This is just one of the many possible ways it could be. You cant get anywhere with certain people
You can get somewhere with anyone. Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and Their Alternatives) Humans are basically flawed. Humans are all endowed with what they need to adapt and thrive in the world. You have to compromise. Compromise is only one option among many for resolving conflicts
There will always be winners and losers. It is possible for everyone to win. Beliefs that Lead to Impasses (and Their Alternatives) You cant trust anyone. You can learn to trust yourself and others. Dos and Donts for Resolving Conflicts
Do speak up when an issue is important to you. Dont strike while he iron is hot. Do take time to think about a problem and to clarify your position. Dont use below the belt tactics. Do speak in I language Dont make vague requests. Dos and Donts for Resolving Conflicts
Do try to appreciate the fact that people are different. Dont participate in intellectual arguments that go nowhere. Do recognize that each person is responsible for his or her own behavior. Dont tell another person what she or he thinks or feels or should think or feel. Dos and Donts for Resolving Conflicts
Do try to avoid speaking through a third party. Dont expect change to come about from hitan-run confrontations. Goals of Psychology Description Understanding
Prediction Control Theory Research Intervention Unit 10: Sleep I.
II. III. IV. V. Sleep Basics Circadian Rhythms Sleep Debt The Opponent Process Theory of Sleep Sleep as a Performance Enhancement Skill?
What is Sleep? Sleep is a period of sensory isolation. -William Dement Sensory input from the environment is blocked When you are asleep, you wont notice a bright light flashing even if your eyes are taped open Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) Give people the opportunity to sleep every 2
hours (i.e., 9:30, 11:30, 1:30, 3:30 & 5:30) Have 20 minutes to fall asleep As soon as you fall asleep, or at 20 minute mark, the test ends Multiple Sleep Latency Test Well rested people: 15-20 minutes Sleep deprived: 10 minutes Serious sleep deprivation: 5 minutes or less (associated with big sleep debt and/or sleep disorders)
Correlates very strongly with subjective feelings of tiredness and fatigue Starbucks Stores Since 1987 Sleep Debt Defined: All lost sleep less than the daily average amount you need If you need an average of 10 hours per night, and you sleep 7 hours, you just added 3 hours to your sleep debt
Sleep Debt: The Cumulative Effect of Lost Sleep Baseline: 9 hours sleep/night; Study: 5 hours sleep /night Sleep Debt Sleep debt is only reduced (or paid back) by getting EXTRA sleep (sleeping MORE than the daily average amount you need) If youre tired today, its more likely a function of your sleep debt than how much sleep you
got last night Circadian Rhythms Defined: Rhythms that repeat about every 24 hours (often slightly more than 24 hours) Processes following circadian rhythms: Melatonin levels Body temperature Tooth enamel Alertness
Circadian Rhythms Important rhythm for our discussion: clockdependent alerting Experience a push of wakefulness two times a day: In the morning when you wake (e.g. 8 AM) Again around 12 hours later (e.g. 8 PM) Second push is stronger because youve acquired a days worth of sleep debt Sleep & Motor Memory
Motor Learning task: typing out numbers on a keyboard (~ playing a piano) Wake First Group: Train (10 AM) Test (10 PM) SLEEP Retest (10 AM) Sleep First Group: Train (10 PM) SLEEP Test (10 AM) Retest (10 PM) Wake First Group Sleep First Group
Basketball: Individual Sprint (282 ft) Sleep extension begins after Session 6 Basketball: 3 Point Shots (out of 15; sleep extension starts after day 18)
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