UNIT 5 ROME PART 1 CHAPTER 13 BEGINNINGS Lesson Essential Question 1: Where are the important cities, features, and bodies of water for ancient Rome located on a map?
A. Locate and label items on the Rome map. Why Its Important (p. 209) B. Why was Palatine Hill important? 1.
2. On the hill known as the Palatine, an early people founded a settlement later known as Rome. This settlement would become the center of a great empire, whose achievements still influence life today. Section 1: Founding of Rome
(p. 209-210) Founding of Rome Lesson Essential Question 2: What legend describes the founding of Rome? C. According to legend, what happened after the fall of Troy?
After the fall of Troy, the gods ordered a Trojan prince called Aeneas to lead his people to a promised land in the West. D. What group did Aeneas join forces with? The Latins E. According to legend, what happened about 800 B. C.? Why was that a big deal?
1. 2. 3. 4. A Latin princess (Rhea Silvia) gave birth to twin sons fathered by the god Mars. The princess had taken an oath never to have children. Because she broke her word, she was
punished. Her sons, Romulus and Remus were taken from her and left to die on the bank of the flooding Tiber. F. Continuing with the legend, how were Romulus and Remus raised? 1. 2.
3. Romulus and Remus were found by a she-wolf, which fed and cared for them. One day, a shepherd killed the she-wolf and discovered the babies. The shepherd then took the babies home with him.
G. According to legend, how was the city of Rome founded? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
When the boys grew older, they decided to build a city on the Tiber. They decided to let the gods choose which brother should rule the city. Each brother climbed to the top of a different hill to watch for a sign from the gods. Then, twelve vultures flew over the Palatine. Since Romulus stood atop the Palatine, he claimed to be king. He and Remus then fought and Remus was
killed. Romulus became king of the city, which he named Rome. Founding of Rome Lesson Essential Question 3: How was Rome actually founded?
H. What have experts found about the founding of Rome? About 1000 B. C., groups of people with iron weapons began invading the lands around the Mediterranean. A group called the Latins settled on the Palatine. Romans belonged to this group. I. What made the area where the Latins settled an ideal place?
1. 2. 3. It had a pleasant climate and fertile soil. Nearby were forests that supplied the Latins with timber. They built gravel roads to bring salt and other items from the coast.
K. Describe the people who settled on the Palatine around 776 B. C. The settlement on the Palatine had become a village of about 1,000 people. Section 2: The Etruscans (p. 210-214)
Lesson Essential Question 4: What was life like for the Etruscans? L. Who were the Etruscans? 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. Around 800 B. C., a people called Etruscans settled in Etruria, the country north of the Latin village on the Palatine. The Etruscans were Italys first highly civilized people. Etruscan farmers used mostly iron tools.
Some Etruscans were metalworkers and sculptors. They were known as the peoples of the sea, feared as pirates and respected as traders. Over time, the Etruscan cities grew, and by 600 B. C., they dominated all of Northern Italy, including the Latin village on the Palatine.
Daily Life (p. 213) M. What was daily life like for Etruscans? 1. 2. 3. 4.
They enjoyed playing and watching games like chess, backgammon, wrestling, running, boxing, and horse racing. The Etruscans loved music and dancing best. The Etruscans had a strong sense of social order . Define social order the way groups of people are classed N. How were the Etruscans
eventually divided? 1. 2. 3. The upper class consisted of wealthy landowners, nobles, and priests. The middle class had farmers, traders, and city workers. The lower class consisted of enslaved people.
Religious Beliefs (p. 213214) Lesson Essential Question 5: What religious beliefs were held by the Etruscans? O. Describe Etruscan religion.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Etruscans had many gods, most of whom
were modeled after the Greeks. The Etruscans believed the world was divided into provinces with each province ruled by different gods. They believed humans were powerless before the gods so they wanted to please their gods. They discovered what the gods willed through a priestly group of aristocrats called soothsayers, or people who can predict
events. Soothsayers read certain omens, or signs of what is to happen. Tombs of Gold (p. 214) P. Describe what happened when an Etruscan noble died. 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. When an Etruscan noble died a great banquet was held, and two of the nobles slaves fought one another to the death.
The nobles were buried in tombs beneath the ground called catacombs. Define catacombs underground cemeteries The Etruscans believed that life after death lasted longer and was more important than life on Earth. They filled their tombs with works of art and treasures of gold, silver, bronze, and ivory. Because of this, Etruscan tombs are known as tombs of gold. Outside each Etruscan city was a necropolis, or
cemetery, made up of acres of these tombs. Section 3: Etruscans and Romans (p. 215-216) Lesson Essential Question 6: What did the Etruscans contribute to Roman
civilization? Q. Who was Lucius Tarquinius and why was he important? 1. In 616 B. C., Lucius Tarquinius became the first Etruscan ruler of Rome. 2. His dynasty ruled Rome for more than 100 years.
R. What did the Etruscans contribute to the Romans? 1. 2. 3. 4. The Etruscans taught the Latins how to use the arch in building bridges.
They also laid the foundations for Romes first sewer system. The Etruscans drained the swamp at the foot of the Palatine, which became Romes Forum. Define Forum public square R. What did the Etruscans contribute to the Romans? 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. The Romans borrowed the Etruscan alphabet and some Etruscan customs, including gladiatorial games.
Define gladiatorial games Fights between armed men, between men and animals, between women and dwarfs, and between animals The Romans also borrowed the triumph, or parade like welcome given to a Roman hero returning from battle. In addition, the Romans borrowed Etruscan symbols of authority. One symbol of authority was fasces, or a bundle of rods bound around an ax that became the
symbol of a Roman rulers power. R. What did the Etruscans contribute to the Romans? 10. The Etruscans built the first temple on the Capitoline; today it is the center of Romes city government. 11. The Romans founded their cities according to
a ritual borrowed from the Etruscans. 12. Priests marked where the two main streets would meet and marked it with a stone. 13. The Romans believed the place where the two streets met was the mundus, or the meeting point for the worlds of the living and the dead. 14. Etruscans played an important role in the development of Roman civilization.
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