Typography - Mrs. James' Business Educators Technology Classroom

Typography - Mrs. James' Business Educators Technology Classroom

Typography Typography Putting type on a page without incorporating typographic principles is Typography merely word processing. Terry Rydberg, Author Exploring InDesign 3 Typography Typography Typography The study of all elements of type as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the use of

digital type; includes the shape, size, and spacing of characters. The Right Choice Choosing the right font is about readability and legibility Readabilityhow easily words, phrases, and blocks of text can be read Always consider your audience when selecting typefaces for your publication Legibilitythe ease with which individual letters can be distinguished Type Anatomy

Baseline Descender x-height Caps height Ascender Type Anatomy ASCENDER Edwardian Script --Z Century Bradley X-HEIGHT BASELINE

DESCENDER CAPS HEIGHT Cooper Mistral--j Definitions BaselineAn imaginary horizontal line along which the base of a letter sets DescenderThe part of any character (g, j, p, q, y, and sometimes J) that falls below the baseline. x-heightThe height of lowercase letters, specifically the lowercase x, not including ascenders and descenders Caps HeightThe height of capital letters from the baseline to the top of caps, most accurately measured on a character with a flat bottom (E,

H, I, etc.) AscenderThe part of a lowercase character (b, Typeface TypefaceA family of alphabetic characters, numbers, punctuation marks and other symbols that share a consistent design Example: Times New Roman, Arial, etc. Note: the term character is often used to refer to any individual letter, punctuation, numeral, or symbol. The Point System Fonts are measured by a system called points. In the United States, one point = 1/72 Other parts of the world use varying systems; example: parts of Europe use a point system, but the point is slightly smaller than

an American point Some use a metric system, but because of the United States dominance in the marketing of typographic software, the concept has not taken hold worldwide. http://www.oberonplace.com/dtp/fonts/point.htm Measuring Font Size If one point is 1/72 of an inch, then 72 points should equal one inchbut it is not an exact measurement Font size is measured from the height of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender within the entire typeface. Arial Black: Mistral:

Q g h j x @ $ () Qbfgkx$ Point Sizes Body text size should range from 9 to 12 point. Start with 10 and make adjustments. Match point size to readershipExample:14 point for young children and over 65. Heading size should be approximately 2 points greater than the body text size (or bigger)remember contrast is important. Typeface Classifications Serif Sans Serif Display/ Decorative

Script Serif A serif is the little extra stroke found at the end of main vertical and horizontal strokes of some letterforms. Serif typefaces are typically easier to read; usually used for large bodies of text. Examples: Times New Roman Garamond TSA Sans Serif Type which does not have serifs Sans is French for without Used for displays, special emphasis

and small bodies of text--is difficult to read in large bodies of text Example: Arial Black Verdana TSA Display & Decorative Designs are unusual and unique and are designed to attract attention One of the newest categories of decorative fonts is grunge type, which typically has a rough, coarse look. Used in limited situations in larger sizes like headlines, titles, and advertisements Not appropriate for body text

Example: Gigi Chiller Script Designed to resemble handwriting, with styles ranging from formal to whimsical Should NEVER be set in all capital letters Generally reserved for invitations, greetings, advertisements Examples: Script Magneto Vladimir Dingbats In addition to the primary categories,

there are several sets of decorative elements (dingbats) available in font formatornaments, shapes, pictures, symbols, etc. Examples: Desktop Publi shing Standard dingbat font sets are symbol, wingdings, and webdings Dingbats are also known as printers ornaments Font Selection Consider the audience when selecting typefaces and point size Consider the type of paper and method of printing when choosing typeface and point size. Match the personality of the typeface with the publication.

Limit typefacesbetween one and three. Be consistent in the use of fontsall headlines the same, all body text the same, etc. Font Styles Stylespecial formatting applied to text; the most common styles are: Boldappears darker than the surrounding text Italicsslopes to the right Underline Other effects that are commonly available are: Shadowadds depth to text or other objects, making them appear more three-dimensional SMALL CAPlowercase letters display in a smaller size than the regular uppercase letters, typically the height of lowercase letters in that

font Outline 3-D --creating the illusion of depth Special Formats Contour Reverse type D rop cap Texture Text Wrap Color

Text that follows an outline in a curved or irregular pattern Light color text on a dark background typefaces with heavier letters and/or serifs are easier to read The first letter in a story is enlarged and lowered below the normal baseline so the top of the letter is even with the first line of text The illusion of actual textures such as wood, metal, objects in nature, etc. Text flows a graphic around image Self-explanatory

Spacing Techniques Altering the amount of space between characters, words, lines of text, and blocks of text can help in fitting more text on the page, making pages visually lighter or heavier, and improving readability.* Leading Kerning Tracking Widows/Orphans Spacing after punctuation

Indents Hanging Indents *desktoppub.about.com/cs/basic/a/textcomposition.htm Leading Leadingthe space between lines of text; sometimes known as line spacing Pronounced ledding Leading is measured from baseline to baseline, typically two points greater than the point sizesome software calculates leading as 120% of the point size Kerning Kerningthe adjustment of space between pairs of

letters to improve its appearance or alter its fit The spacing between letters is determined by the font; some fonts will automatically kern, or adjust the spacing between letters to make them fit together. Too little space can cause the letters to run together and appear as one making it difficult to read Too much space between letters can create rivers which make it difficult for the readers eye to flow through the text. Some software uses the expression character spacing. Bradley Bradley KERNING Tracking TrackingAdjusting the spacing between words, phrases, and extended blocks of text

N O R M AL TI G HT LO O SE VE RY LO O SE

Widows and Orphans Dangling words at the top and bottom of pages interrupt the readers eye and make reading more difficult. Widows and OrphansShort lines of text (single sentence or phrase) that appear at the end of a paragraph, column, or page or at the top of a column or page. Avoid leaving sub headings at the bottom of a page without accompanying text Widows and Orphans Erostrud magniscin velit, quis eum el in Sum ipit lore vel do conullan ulluptatis Verum iam id conirita ia? Usce esi pris

henismolore min venis exeraessi tat autatisl ut eum vullam in et nonsequi blaorper augiatem denatum, que in duconsuam it. Cate pon diem et volobor irit iril ullaore min veliquam vendit am diam incilit wis aliquatet vercing ex er aci noc, aurnius omnessin stra nonsi pore austisse loreraesto cortincidui ex exer aliquipit la te ercing et ad er susto odolorp erostie tet alit vili pos opopopu blica; nirter liceste ripti, facillam nos del ut wis adipit praestrud

num ip ero odio etum alit iurerat pratie tat. simihil icullego vastium ipionsu ltorenatil halin doloreros etuer irit lut nonulpute magnisim vel Feugue magniscing euismol oDeconsul in inamquonem qui in sum tere. alit ute ming eu feuisit aciduip eugait lore torbiss ignove, sessolis. Dec re creo imusti, tatuerostis el dolore do ent utpate consed tatem consupiocae oc, etis; nos se parit dinculi

dolore dolore magnim vulla faccum quisi. quam, quatet dolobor sendrem eum ipis ssidiner quo consum ussestratum omne in de Factata berfeco virmacchus; iam in Itaremp nonsequ amcommy nostion sequis nonse tet, dicipioris crem in tuit. Ful temum erum adet ratodiu spioriossus ma, ut pris. Torae medeatu conullaor adit wismodiam, sit at. oraci senatum nos obsed pon di stem perem o rberit, qua rebus, sum egitustia publi iam

iam. Fece forum fue ius consulinatam mentebatquon se non duc rei esse novenihice iginatquem ia patum ego in teri pero, nihilla constra noverfec verum aut vid ca; esicio, tesilica que con dest intritere nostra de comne publis ad mum in tem neque ne popti, fure mo moverit. publint? Di tandactum cussesto iam teris vilius, Orer iriure feum il ulput alit alit enit ipis dolore dolore magnim vulla faccum quisi.

Orer iriure feum il ulput alit enit ipis optiam nos etori iam.and Note: The filler text used in this illustration is called greeking; it is also known as lorem ipsum. Text greeking is used to simulate the real text while planning the layout of a publication Widows and Orphans Henry Ford was an American hero. He was a self-taught machinist and engineer whom many say changed American forever. In 1903, he founded the Ford Motor Company, a small company that manufactured automobiles. After examining scientific management theories and studying the philosophy of

efficient production as presented by Frederick Winslow Taylor, Ford changed manufacturing practices. Taylor was an efficiency expert who developed a new concept of labor that reduced the requirement for human expertise in an efficient manufacturing environment. In 1906, Ford borrowed Taylors ideas changed how he manufactured automobiles. Ford was the father of mass production techniquesthe assembly linewhich Fords implementation of the assembly line made automobiles affordable to the average

American. His Model T, otherwise known as the Tin Lizzie, became the foremost mass-produced product in the world. Mass production became the unifying theme for American industry in the early 1900s and beyond. The automobile revolutionized the world more than any other product until the advent of the computer. What have we learned from this lesson in history? Was Henry Fords mass production technique really the best way to produce goods? Or are critics of the mass production philosophy

correct when they point out that assembly line workers want more from a job than just being an invisible cog in the wheel of production? While the answer to these We may have to make that decision about how we use computers one day! Fixing Widows/Orphans Rewrite Set the automatic features in your software to prevent it Adjust the spacing between letters (kerning) or between groups of words (tracking)

Spacing and Punctuation Em spacea space that is the width of a capital M in the font and point size being used Use an em space to indent paragraphs; one to two em spaces are an appropriate paragraph indentiondepending on the width of the column En spacea space that is the width of a capital N; half the size of an em space Spacing and Punctuation End of sentence punctuationspace one time after punctuation at the end of a sentence Elliptical periods (an ellipsis) indicate the omission of text or an interruption or hesitation; three periods are used within a sentence, etc. If the omission or interruption occurs at the end of a sentence, a fourth period is used. Kern the periods to reduce the space between charactersor insert elliptical characters.

Hyphenuse when keying phone numbers, social security numbers or hyphenating words at the end of a line; example: 501-555-5555 Spacing and Punctuation Em dasha line the width of a capital M; is used to indicate a break or pause in thought Dashes can be used in pairs like parenthesesthat is, to enclose a word, or a phrase, or a clauseor they can be used alone to detach one end of a sentence from the main body. Can be used in the place of a colon, semicolon, parentheses, or commas En dasha line the width of a capital N; is used to connect ranges of numbers, dates, letters Example: 9:005:00 or March 1531 Indents / Hanging Indents Indent--a feature that sets a temporary left,

right, or left and right margin for paragraph text LEFT Write a brief essay describing at least three concepts you need to consider when choosing the typefaces for a publication . Write a brief essay describing at least three concepts you need to consider when choosing the typefaces for a publication. RIGHT Write a brief essay describing at least three concepts you need to consider when choosing the typefaces for a publication. LEFT AND RIGHT Hanging indent--first line of a paragraph is flush left, but all remaining lines are indented; alsoHANGIN

used in bulleted lists Write a brief essay describing at least three concepts you G need to consider when choosing the typefaces for a publication. Alignment Definition: lining up text or graphic elements to the top, bottom, sides, or middle of a page or box Center Justified (Full)

Left (Ragged right) Right (Ragged left) Alignment Center Located where the Ozarks meet the Delta, the Bald Knob School District covers approximately 178 square miles and is located in north central Arkansas, about 60 miles from Little Rock. With a school population of just over 1300, the district services its students

in a K-4, 5-8, 9-12 environment. Justifie d Left Right Located where the Ozarks meet the Delta, the Bald Knob School District covers approximately 178 square miles and is located in north central Arkansas, about 60 miles from Little Rock.

With a school population of just over 1300, the district services its students in a K-4, 5-8, 912 environment. Located where the Ozarks meet the Delta, the Bald Knob School District covers approximately 178 square miles and is located in north central Arkansas, about 60 miles from Little Rock. With a school population of just

over 1300, the district services its students in a K-4, 5-8, 9-12 environment. Located where the Ozarks meet the Delta, the Bald Knob School District covers approximately 178 square miles and is located in north central Arkansas, about 60 miles from Little Rock. With a school population of just over 1300, the district services its students

in a K-4, 5-8, 9-12 environment. Full Ragged Right Ragged Left Center Alignment Used primarily with invitations, announcements, plaques, certificates, etc. Hard to read full paragraphs or long lines of text Frequently used for headlines over columns Do not center-align numbered or bulleted lists

Justified Alignment (Full) Standard format for newspaper columns, magazine articles, books, etc. Requires attention to detail since rivers can occur easily due to spacing and hyphenation Considered very formal Left Alignment Creates a less formal, friendlier layout Watch for hyphenation problems Typically is easier to format requires less time, attention, etc. Ragged right creates white space Right Alignment

Used to catch the readers attention Typically used in advertisements, magazine layouts, etc. Hyphenation Definition: To divide or connect (syllables, word elements, or names) with a hyphen. Allows for more words to fitsaving space. The last word on a page should never be divided. No more than two consecutive end-of-line hyphens are recommended. At least two letters must appear on the line before a hyphen, and at least three letters must appear on the line following. If hyphenating manually, check the right edge for any obvious holes, sloping edges or words that stick out.

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