Types of Software (continued) - Home - Boone County Schools

Types of Software (continued) - Home - Boone County Schools

Lesson 1 Computers and Operating Systems Computer Literacy BASICS: A Comprehensive Guide to IC3, 5th Edition 1 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo About the Presentations The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each lesson. All lesson objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs. Some figures from the lessons are included. A complete set of images from the book can be

found on the Instructor Resources disc. Lesson 1 2 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Objectives Describe Lesson 1 3 the importance of computers in daily life. Explain the difference between system software and

application software. Describe the four major types of operating systems. Identify the tasks an operating system performs. Start a computer. Use an operating system and start an application. Lock and shut down a computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Words to Know application Lesson 1 4 software boot process buffer command-line interface

data driver Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo embedded operating system graphical user interface (GUI) hardware icon information processing cycle CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Words to Know (continued) multiuser Lesson 1

5 operating system open-source software operating system random access memory (RAM) Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo server operating system software swapping system software utility program

virtual memory CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers Computers Lesson 1 6 are everywhere. Computers are used in your cell phone, in ATMs, in your home thermostat, and in your cars cruise control. Computers assist you in most parts of your daily life and play a central role in worldwide communications, entertainment, education, commerce, and other business activities. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Computers Lesson 1 7 have been around since the late 1940s. Then, they were massive, special-purpose machines with names such as UNIVAC and ENIAC and were designed for use by the military and government. They took hours to complete a calculation, occupied small buildings or entire city blocks, and cost millions of dollars.

Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Todays Lesson 1 8 smartphones have more processing power than a UNIVAC, cost less than any of its components, and fit in the palm of your hand. The future promises innovations such as wearable computers, using human thought as input, and computer-controlled, microcontrolled robots that treat and possibly cure cancer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Understanding Lesson 1 9 what a computer is and how it works can help you appreciate and use it more effectively. A computer is an electronic device that receives data (input), processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). Data is a collection of raw unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, sound, images, and video. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) The Lesson 1 10 actual machinewires, transistors, and circuitsis called hardware. Software consists of instructions or programs for controlling the computer. Data is text, numbers, sound, images, or video. The computer receives data through an input device, processes the data, produces the output information on an output device, and stores the information on a storage device.

Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) The input and output devices, such as keyboards and monitors, are types of hardware called peripherals. Data transformed into meaningful form becomes information. Lesson 1 11 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Lesson 1 12 Input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS) is called the information processing cycle. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Understanding the Importance of Computers (continued) Lesson 1

13 Computer Literacy To be computer literate means that you can use todays computers efficiently to enhance your life and the lives of those around you. Computer literacy also means you understand a wide range of information about current technology and how it is used to solve problems. A digital divide the economic gap between those who are computer literate and have access to computer technology, and those who do not. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Software Software provides the means for you to interact with the computers

hardware. A graphical user interface (GUI) displays pictures called icons that allow you to interact with data and execute commands. Lesson 1 14 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Software (continued) Lesson 1

15 Some software uses a command-line interface, which requires you to type text commands to interact with the computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Software (continued) System Software and Application Software Lesson 1 A computer relies on two types of software: system software and application software.

System software runs a computer and includes the operating system and utility programs. 16 An operating system is software that coordinates the resources and activities on a computer. A utility program helps the operating system set up, maintain, and protect a computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Software (continued) Lesson 1

17 System Software and Application Software (continued) Application software - the software used to directly complete a specific task or to create something electronically. helps you perform tasks such as writing a report, creating a video, viewing a Web page, or sending photos to a friend. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Software (continued) System Software and Application Software (continued) Lesson 1

18 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems Operating Lesson 1 systems 4 major categories depending on the type of device for which they are designed: 19

Personal computers Mobile computing devices Servers Devices other than computers Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Personal Computer Operating Systems Lesson 1 20 installed on a single computer and are called single-user operating

systems because one user interacts with the operating system at a time. multitasking operating systems, which means they let you work with more than one program at a time. The three most popular personal computer operating systems are Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Personal Computer Operating Systems (continued)

Lesson 1 Windows XP (2001) and Windows 7 (2009) were both widely used Windows versions. Windows 10 is the most recent version of Windows. Windows became widespread because it ran on inexpensive personal computers created by a variety of computer manufacturers. Windows 21 easy to use and to personalize runs more types of applications than other operating systems.

Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 22 Personal Computer Operating Systems (continued) Mac OS runs only on Apple Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the current version of the operating system. Mac OS set the standard for GUI operating systems and is liked by its users for being a very secure, reliable, and easy-to-maintain operating system. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 23 Personal Computer Operating Systems (continued) Linux is a personal computer operating system related to UNIX, which is an operating system developed in the late 1960s that is frequently used by scientists and programmers. Linux is released to the public as open-source software, meaning anyone can use, modify, and distribute it. Linux is available in versions called distributions, including commercial and noncommercial distributions. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 24 Mobile Operating Systems designed for small handheld computing devices. It includes features similar to a personal operating system but is simpler and smaller. A smartphone is a cell phone that includes many features of a computer. Tablets are one-piece mobile computers that usually include a touchscreen, which is a screen you touch to interact with the GUI. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 25 Mobile Operating Systems (continued) iOS is a version of Mac OS X written for Apples mobile devices, including iPhones and iPads. Googles Android is an open-source operating system designed to run on many types of smartphones and tablets, and is derived from Linux. Windows Phone and Windows RT are similar to Windows 8. primarily work as single-user, single-tasking operating systems. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 26 Embedded Operating Systems run devices such as ATMs, navigation systems, portable media players, and digital recorders. designed to meet a specific purpose and perform a single task, such as providing maps and directions. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 Server Operating Systems resides on a server and is used to manage a network (a group of two or more computers linked together). A server is a computer that provides network services such as e-mail to other computers, or clients. 27 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 28 Server Operating Systems (continued) sometimes called network operating systems. Each client on a network has its own personal operating system. manages the requests for services from the client computers. An expert called the network administrator uses the server operating system to manage the network and its users. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

Types of Operating Systems (continued) Lesson 1 29 Server Operating Systems (continued) Server operating systems are multiuser operating systems because they allow many users to run programs and use the servers resources at the same time. Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and UNIX all have server versions of their operating systems. UNIX is used for many servers that handle e-mail and Internet access. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

Operating System Tasks controls Lesson 1 30 your computer from the time you turn on the power to the time you turn it off. takes care of technical tasks: start-up steps managing memory processing input and output controlling hardware ending a computer session Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued)

Completing Start-Up Steps Lesson 1 31 The boot process is a series of steps the operating system must complete before you can interact with the operating system. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Managing Memory

After Lesson 1 starting up, the operating system manages computer resources. A resource is any component the system requires to do work. main resources 32 memory processing components storage space peripherals

Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Lesson 1 33 Managing Memory (continued) The operating system manages random access memory (RAM) efficiently. All programs need space in RAM to run. When you start an application, the operating system allocates RAM to the program. When you close the application, the operating system reclaims the RAM. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Managing Memory (continued) run too many applications at a time = the computer can run out of RAM. In that case, the operating system might close an application or shut down the computer unexpectedly (called a crash). Operating systems can take advantage of virtual memory, a part of a computers hard disk that can work as additional RAM. Lesson 1 34 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Managing Memory (continued) Lesson 1 35 To gain memory, Windows moves data from one running application out of RAM and into virtual memory, a process called swapping. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

Operating System Tasks (continued) Processing Input and Output Lesson 1 36 Another major task of the operating system is processing input and output Often, the operating system must handle many input and output tasks at the same time. To keep your computer running smoothly, the operating system sets a sequence for processing input and output tasks. The operating system places data into a buffer, which is part of memory or storage where data waits until it can be transferred to a device. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Controlling Hardware Lesson 1 37 The operating system considers every hardware device connected to the computer as an input or output device. The operating system communicates with a driver (aka device driver), which is a small program that enables the operating system to interact with the device. Each device must have a driver and is typically provided by the device manufacturer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Controlling Hardware (continued) Lesson 1 38 When you install new hardware, the operating system searches for the correct driver and installs it so you can use the new hardware right away. This feature is called Plug and Play Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo

CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Ending a Computer Session Lesson 1 39 When you end a session, the operating system takes care of the tasks to shut down, restart, sign out, switch users, or lock the computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

ENDING A COMPUTER SESSION Lesson 1 40 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Operating System Tasks (continued) Ending a Computer Session (continued) Lesson 1 To shut down a computer (aka log off), the

operating system follows a series of steps: 41 Checks users Closes applications Closes system software Turns off the power Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary Lesson 1

42 In this lesson, you learned: A computer is an electronic device that receives data (input), processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). A computer includes hardware (physical equipment such as wires and circuits) and software (instructions or programs for controlling the computer). Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 43 To

keep up with the changes in computer technology, you need to be computer literate, which means that you can use todays computer hardware and software efficiently to enhance your life and the lives of those around you. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) You Lesson 1 44 interact with software through its user

interface, which allows you to enter and receive information. Most contemporary software has a graphical user interface (GUI), which uses icons and other graphics to accept data and commands. Other software uses a command-line interface, which requires you to type text commands to interact with the computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 45 A computer runs two main types of software:

system software and application software. System software is the software that runs a computer, and includes the operating system and utility programs. A utility program helps the operating system set up, maintain, and protect a computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 46 An operating system is software that coordinates the resources and activities on a computer.

Application software is software you use to carry out your work or personal tasks. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Personal Lesson 1 47 computer operating systems run on personal computers. Mobile operating systems are designed for handheld computers such as tablets and smartphones. Embedded operating systems are part of an electronic device or system other than a computer.

Server operating systems run servers, which are the computers that coordinate networks. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Single-user, single-tasking operating systems let only one user perform a single task at one time. Most mobile and embedded operating systems fall into this category. Single-user multitasking operating systems let one user run many programs at the same time, and include all personal computer operating systems. Multiuser operating systems, such as server operating systems, let many users run programs and take advantage of the computers resources at the same time.

Lesson 1 48 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) The technical tasks an operating system performs include completing start-up steps, managing memory, processing input and output, controlling hardware, and ending a computer session. The boot process is a series of steps the computer and operating system must complete before you can interact with the operating system.

Lesson 1 49 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 50 The resources an operating system manages include memory (RAM), processing components, storage space, and peripheral devices. To supplement RAM, operating systems take

advantage of virtual memory, which is part of a computers storage space that can work as additional memory. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 51 To keep your computer running smoothly, the operating system sets a sequence for processing input and output tasks and uses buffers, which are parts of memory or storage where data waits until it can be transferred to a device.

To control a hardware resource, the operating system communicates with a device driver, a small program that tells the operating system how to interact with the device. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E Summary (continued) Lesson 1 52 A personal operating system needs to know when youre finished working with a computer so it can protect itself and other software, and keep your

information private while you are away. Although you select an option to end a session, the operating system takes care of the tasks, which range from shutting down, to restarting, signing out (also called logging off), switching users, and locking the computer. Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo CLB: A Comp Guide to IC3 5E

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