Types of Graphs And when to use them! Bar Graph This type of graph represents: 1. Frequency of occurrence (how often?)
2. - ex. The average # of times different species of birds visit their nests in a month. Comparison of magnitude (how much? How strongly?) - the average amount of money spent by the government on different departments
Example: How long? Histogram This type of graph represents a distribution of results It measures a continuous variable (height of students, Mitchs savings) It measures one thing and how this one this is distributed
Example: Mitchs Savings distributed over 7 weeks Example: The number of students distributed over different height ranges Line Graphs These types of graphs represent a trend over time. They are not appropriate for use when you are working with TWO
variables (dependant and independent) Example: How many dolphins seen per year (time) Example: Treys height as he ages (time) Scatter Diagram This type of graph is used to compare pairs of values
You could use this graph to measure how a dependant and an independent variable change with respect to each other Probably a good graph for your science fair project! Example: Temperature (independent variable) vs. Number of Ice Creams Sold (dependant variable)
Now Lets Try An Example of a Science Fair Project Together Example: Height of Tomato Plant (dependent variable) vs. Amount of Fertilizer Added (independent variable) Step One: Collect and Organize Data Fertilizer (mL)
Plant Height after 6 weeks (cm) 0 6 12 10
14 10 16 14 18
15 20 18 100 23 STEP 2
Step Two: Represent your data in a chart (You can do this by hand or using Excel) Draw in a line of best fit where appropriate X values- independent Y-values- dependent STEP 3 Step Three: Make sure that your graph is
completely labeled There must be a TITLE Each AXIS should be labeled with units There should be a FIGURE CAPTION explaining what the graph is showing Figure Caption Example Figure 1: Changes in height of tomato plant compared to how much fertilizer was added to soil. The height of the plants were measured after a 6 week period
Start by numbering your figure. Then use a caption to convey the information (not a full sentence). You may add any additional information using full sentences. Dont add excess information, only describe
what is being shown in the figure. Dont give analysis or conclusions Fig. 1:Tomato Plant Height vs. Amount of fertilizer Height of plant (cm) 30 Y
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