TRANSPLANTATION & REJECTION Objectives: Upon the completion of this lecture the students are expected to: Know the benefits of transplantation in clinical medicine To know the immunological mechanisms of rejection To know the immunological and physiological barriers to transplantation To know the roles of T cells and MHC molecules in rejection
To understand the methods of rejection prevention To know and understand the laboratory tests for tissue compatibility Transplantation and Rejection Studying the immunology of transplantation and rejection is important because: Its impact on understanding of immunological practice Its applications in the development of clinical
transplantation IT has led to: Discovery of MHC molecules Better understanding of T cell physiology and function Development and use of immunomodulatory drugs Applications Organ transplanted Kidney
Heart Liver Cornea Pancreas or Islets Bone marrow Small bowel Skin Example of disease End stage renal failure
Terminal cardiac failure Cirrhosis, Cancer Dystrophy Diabetes Immunodeficiency, Leukemia Cancer Burns :Barriers to transplantation Genetic differences between the donor and recipient:
Graft can be classified into: Autografts: From one part of the body to another Isografts: Between isogenic individuals Allografts: Between genetically different individuals from the same species ( Most common) Xenografts: Between members of different species ( rapidly rejected by IgM or cell mediated rejection) Histocompatibility antigens Genes that are responsible for rejection
There are more than 30 gene loci Reject at different rate In human known as human leucocyte antigens (HLA) Cellular constituents are called minor histocompatibility antigens These induce rejection at a slower rate Combination of several minor antigens induce strong rejection MHC haplotypes are
inherited from both parents and are co dominantly expressed MHC are expressed in transplanted tissues and are induced by cytokines (INF and TNF)
In transplantation foreign MHC molecules can directly activate T cells This is unique to transplantation !! Host-versus-graft responses cause transplant rejection Graft-versus-host reactions result when donor lymphocytes attack the graft recipient The role of lymphocyte in rejection
In experimental animals: Removal of thymus leads to inability to reject transplant Irradiation to remove existing T cells leads to inability to reject transplant Ability to restore rejection can be achieved by injecting T cells from animal of the same strain This gives strong evidence that T cells are crucial in the rejection process. Ab cause graft damage and macrophages are involved in
inflammation Presentation of Graft antigen 1- High density of graft MHC molecules react weakly with TCR and generate signal for T cell activation 2- Graft MHC molecules can present the grafts own peptides including peptides from both major /minor MHC molecules 3- Graft MHC can present processed antigen of host molecules causing lack of host tolerance
4- Host antigen presenting cells can uptake different graft molecules and process and present these antigens Rate of rejection: The rate of rejection depends on the :type underlying effector mechanisms Type of rejection Time taken cause
Hyperacute Min-hours Anti-donor Ab and complement Accelerated Days
Reactivation of T cells Acute Days- weeks Primary activation of T cells
Chronic MonthsYears Unclear Immunological components of rejection PREVINTION OF REJECTION Non specific immunosupression can reduce rejection
reaction; Large dose of X ray Steroid : have anti-inflammatory activity and suppress macrophages Cyclosporin: suppress lymphokines production Azatioprine :blocks Tc proliferation :Laboratory testing for Histocompatibility 1-Tissue typing by using flow cytometry to identify human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
2- Serological tissue typing 3-Tissue typing-mixed lymphocyte reaction :Serologic tissue typing Principle: Performed by adding typing antisera of defined specificity ( e.g. anti-HLA-BB) Complement and trypan blue stain are added to the test The trypan stain will stain dead cells with blue
color This indicates that the tested cells carry the antigen Tissue typing-mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) Principle: The cells being tested are incubated with typing cells of known specificity
The tested cells will recognize the typing cells as foreign cells and proliferate If the tested cells are carrying the same specificity as the typing cells they will not proliferate
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