Todd Oakley, English & Cognitive Science Per Aage Brandt ...

Todd Oakley, English & Cognitive Science Per Aage Brandt ...

Todd Oakley, English & Cognitive Science Per Aage Brandt, Modern Languages & Cognitive Science Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio USA Meta-Representation, Mind Reading, and Fictive Interaction A Collectors Conceit How to Produce a Fiction How to Produce a Fiction

Presentation A present perception resonates as a remembered present How to Produce a Fiction Presentation A present perception resonates as a remembered present What is How to Produce a Fiction Presentation A present perception that resonates as a remembered present What is

Representation An Imaginative variation that creates hypothetical or counterfactual events, states, or processes How to Produce a Fiction Presentation A present perception that resonates as a remembered present of the here-and-now What is Representation An Imaginative variation that creates a hypothetical or counterfactual events, states, or processes of the there-and-then What if?

How to Produce a Fiction Presentation A present perception that resonates as a remembered present of the here-and-now What is Representation An Imaginative variation that creates a hypothetical or counterfactual events, states, or processes of the there-and-then What if? Meta-Representation: A fictional representation that projects a there-and-then into the perceptual here-and-now How to Produce a Fiction

Presentation A present perception that resonates as a remembered present of the here-and-now What is Representation An Imaginative variation that creates a hypothetical or counterfactual events, states, or processes of the there-and-then What if? Meta-Representation: A fictional representation that projects a there-and-then into the perceptual here-and-now As if Hypotyposis

Classical rhetorical theorists call this as if phenomenon: hypotyposis or enargia Aristotle calls is a tactic of visualization: pro ommatn poiein, or bringing before the eyes Hypotyposis Classical rhetorical theorists call this as if phenomenon: hypotyposis or enargia Aristotle calls is a tactic of visualization: pro ommatn poiein, or bringing before the eyes Cognitive Linguists call these fictive realities Fictive motion The wainscoting runs along the perimeter of the room Fictive action

The French doors open onto a terra cotta patio Fictive reference The kettle is boiling Fictive interaction (E Pascual 2002) We need to avoid creating he-said-she-said-situations Among others Attention & Intersubjectivity Claim: meta-representations so defined are necessarily intersubjective. Intersubjectivity Claim: meta-representations so defined

are necessarily intersubjective. Cognizers must (at least) tacitly know how to represent the conditions of mutual intelligibility and interaction in order to use them in imaginative variation Intersubjectivity Claim: meta-representations so defined are necessarily intersubjective Cognizers must (at least) tacitly know that how to represent the conditions of mutual intelligibility and interaction in order to use them for imaginative variation This fact is captured most strikingly in instances of hypotyposis in discourse, in pictorial representation, and in curatorship

Cinematic Model Fictional representations are staged in time and space Cinematic Model Fictional representations are staged in time and space The scene of fictional representations has a complex attentional and intersubjective structure Cinematic Model Fictional representations are staged in time and space The scene of fictional representations has a

complex attentional and intersubjective structure Scenarial integration of fictional representations can be approached by using the cinema as a model Cinematic Model Components of the Model The screen a focal area within a bounded site Cinematic Model Components of the Model A screen focal area within a bounded site A projectionist

presupposed agent doing the screening Cinematic Model Components of the Model A screen focal area within a bounded site A projectionist presupposed agent doing the screening An audience perceives the events on the screen as representing something beyond the screen Attention One person attends to the story the film

tells through the optical events on the screen. This is called primary (deictic) attention Attention One person attends to the story the film tells through the optical events on the screen. This is called primary (deictic) attention Another person attends to the first person. This is called secondary (refracted) attention Attention One person attends to the story the film tells through the optical events on the

screen. This is called primary (deictic) attention A second person attends to the first person. This is called secondary (refracted) attention The second person attends to what the first person is attending to. This is called tertiary (harmonic) attention From Attention to Intention The projectionistthe presenter of the fictionis the agent who intends the audience to attend to the show From Attention to Intention The projectionistthe presenter of the fictionis the agent who intends the

audience to attend to the show This intentional instance requires the strategic use of representational resources for interactivity, both of conversation and mentation Mental Spaces These features of the cinematic model can be formally modeled semiotically by a modified version of the Mental Spaces framework developed by Fauconnier & Turner (2002) Mental Spaces We adopt the mode of analysis developed by Line Brandt & Per Aage Brandt (2005),

and Line Brandt (2006) Mental Spaces We adopt the mode of analysis developed by Line Brandt & Per Aage Brandt (2005), and Line Brandt (2006) To review Mental spaces are scenes and scenario or facets of scenes and scenarios representing past, present, future, and otherwise imagined events, processes, and states Meaning arises when scenes and scenarios are activated and sometimes blended Mental space networks are ontologically grounded in a semiotic base space A Famous Example of Fictive

Interaction in Discourse The Debate With Kant A philosophy professor leading a seminar on the philosophy of mind is reported as saying the following: I claim that reason is a self-developing capacity. Kant disagrees with me on this point. He says its innate, but I answer that thats begging the question, to which he counters, in Critique of Pure Reason, that only innate ideas have power. But I say to that, What about neuronal group selection? And he gives no answer. From Fauconnier & Turner (2002: 59-60)

Semiotic Participants Philosophy Professor Students Situation Setting A university classroom with tables, chairs, chalkboards, etc. Intelligibility Condition

Persons unbound of time and space, primarily through modes of written communication Situational relevance Semiotic Presentation space Participants Philosophy Professor Students Oral debate as format of

teaching Situation Setting A university classroom with tables, chairs, chalkboards, etc. Exhibitory Condition Persons unbound of time and space, primarily through

modes of written communication Situational relevance Reference space Kants philosophical writings on mind (as they appear in translation) Semiotic Presentation space Participants Philosophy Professor

Students Reference space Kants philosophical writings on mind (as they appear in translation) Professor Oral debate as format of teaching Situation Setting

A university classroom with tables, chairs, chalkboards, etc. Exhibitory Condition Persons unbound of time and space, primarily through modes of written communication Virtual space 1: Fictive debate 1st person plural Kant with Professor

Situational relevance Virtual space 2: 1st person plural with 3rd person viewpoint Pragmatic implication: Contemporary significance of a fictive debate with Kant Students witness Kants error against the truth of the professors views Magrittes Tentative de limpossible (1928) Semiotic

Presentation space Participants Rene Magritte Model Viewer Reference space Representation of a nude woman on canvas Easel painting Artist working with a nude model. The model posses for the artist.

Situation Setting The viewer is looking through a catalogue of the artists work Exhibitory Condition Expression and content merge; usual objects in very unusual contexts

Situational relevance The artist paints the woman into being Uses paint, brushes & palette to create a 3D woman Virtual space 1: Fictional 1st person plural Semiotic Presentation space Participants Rene Magritte

Model Viewer Reference space Representation of a nude woman on canvas Easel painting Artist working with a nude model. The model posses for the artist. Situation Setting

The viewer is looking through a catalogue of the artists work Expression and content merge The artist paints the woman into being Uses paint, brushes & palette to create a 3D woman Exhibitory Condition Situational relevance

Pragmatic implication: Artists do bring there subjects into being! The artist knows that the viewer knows this is an impossible state of affairs Metarepresentation space Virtual space 1; Fictional 1st person plural Henry Clay Frick & Hans Holbein: A Curators Conceit

Semiotic space Participants museum patrons security guards Situation Setting The Living Hall at the Frick mansion on 5th Avenue in NYC; depictions of St.

Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and listening to commentary Situational relevance Semiotic space Presentation space Participants

museum patrons security guards Situation Hans Holbein, the Younger Portrait of Thomas More (1527) Enface position Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532) Profile position Henry C. Frick =Protagonist Setting The Living Hall at the Frick mansion on 5th Avenue in NYC;

depictions of St. Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and listening to commentary Situational relevance Grounding Presentation space

Participants museum patrons security guards Situation Hans Holbein, the Younger Portrait of Thomas More (1527) Enface position Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532) Profile position Henry C. Frick =Protagonist Setting The Living Hall at the Frick mansion on

5th Avenue in NYC; depictions of St. Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and listening to commentary Situational relevance Reference space Thomas More

(protagonist) Thomas Cromwell (antagonist) Political rivals in the Tudor Court of Henry VIII Grounding Presentation space Participants museum patrons security guards Situation Hans Holbein, the Younger

Portrait of Thomas More (1527) Enface position Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532) Profile position Henry C. Frick =Protagonist Reference space Thomas More (protagonist) Thomas Cromwell (antagonist) Political rivals in the Tudor Court of Henry VIII Setting

The Living Hall at the Frick mansion on 5th Avenue in NYC; depictions of St. Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and listening to commentary Situational relevance

Virtual space 1: 1st person singular experience of a fictive 3rd person viewpoint Semiotic Space Presentation space Participants Hans Holbein, the Younger museum patrons Portrait of Thomas More (1527) Enface position

security guards Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532) Profile position Situation Henry C. Frick =Protagonist Reference space Thomas More (protagonist) Thomas Cromwell (antagonist) Political rivals in the

Tudor Court of Henry VIII Setting The Living Hall at the Frick mansion on 5th Avenue in NYC; depictions of St. Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and

listening to commentary Virtual space 1: 1st person singular experience of a fictive 3rd person viewpoint Situational relevance Illocutionary Force: Look at this! Virtual space 2: 1st person plural experience of a fictive 3rd person viewpoint Grounding

Presentation space Participants Reference space Hans Holbein, the Younger museum patrons Portrait of Thomas More (1527) Enface position security guards Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532) Profile position

Situation Henry C. Frick =Protagonist Thomas More (protagonist) Thomas Cromwell (antagonist) Political rivals in the Tudor Court of Henry VIII Setting The Living Hall at

the Frick mansion on 5th Avenue in NYC; depictions of St. Jerome and St. Paul, among others. Patrons walk through the gallery looking at the collection and listening to commentary Virtual space 1: 1st person singular experience of a fictive 3rd person viewpoint

Situational relevance Illocutionary Force: Look at this! Pragmatic implication: Frick was a clever collector Virtual space 2: 1st person plural experience of a fictive 3rd person viewpoint Metarepresentation space: fictive 3rd person omnipotent perspective Discussion Reconsider representation and metarepresentation in light of a cognitive

semiotic analysis Discussion Various forms of interaction are fundamental to the formation of fictional representations Discussion Shared attention as it relates to intentional meaning needs to be explicitly modeled in these instances Discussion Weve attempted this by integrating mental spaces theory with a cinematic model of attention, for understanding a three step

process from presentation to representation to metarepresentation Discussion this model offers a systematic means of accounting for the richly intesubjective nature of fictional interactions and, we think, offers an important addition to mental spaces framework Discussion Our goal was to analyze properly the nature of meaning as it relates to these issues Discussion

Our goal was to analyze properly the nature of meaning as it relates to these issues We have said nothing about how these processes evolved or developed. Perhaps this workshop can point us in a fruitful direction

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