To do Make equipment list for Principles of Loudspeakers lab Make setup diagram for Hearing lab Lab Setup A Guide Prepared for Physics in the Arts (Physics 109) TAs Lab Setup Guide A guide for TAs of the Physics in the Arts Experienced TAs: Modify details as needed Grouping all drawing objects in each slide avoids unintended movement of objects Some slides have multi-line notes Note contents are visible in Outline View, Normal View or Notes Page (accessed through View menu -> Notes Page) None of the slides should be directly shown to students Modify slides in a manner appropriate for showing to students Slides not copyright-safe yet
The guide must be used only by the TAs of the semester & must not be shared on a server with public access. Last updated: May 1, 2007 Before the Semester Begins... Experienced TAs are responsible for checking consumable items and requesting orders Principles of Loudspeakers Musical Instruments
ILFORD Ortho Plus (Orthochromatic Film) ILFORD MULTI GRADE IV RC DE LUXE (Photographic Paper) KODAK Professional D-76 Developer (Chemicals for Developing) KODAK Dektol Developer (Chemicals for Developing) KODAK Rapid Fixer (Chemicals for Developing) HG89 HEICO PERMAWASH (Chemicals for Developing) Additive Color Mixing Reeds for Clarinet, Oboe and Saxophone, Strings for Guitar, Viola and Violin Maintain proper humidity level for stringed instruments Photography (Photography_Lab_Supplies.xls helps you determine the amount needed)
Beads or plastic pellets used on 12" loudspeaker cone Replacement projector bulbs (300 W and 500 W) Assorted color papers Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint Assorted color papers Daler-Rowney System 3 Acrylic Paints CHROMA A2 Acrylic Paints
Must Have: Yellows (high & low saturation), Red & Pink, Orange & Brown Process Yellow 675, Process Cyan 120, Fluorescent Pink (instead of Process Magenta 412) Titanium White, Carbon Black Labs in General Lab Experiments Students are responsible for knowing important experiments and results Even if they couldn't try during the lab time Need to read the manual Can always ask any questions But remember that they don't have to finish all parts of the lab manual Lab Notebook Must be stored in the lab shelf after each lab Sign/initial at the end of each lab content For exam preparation Many instructors allow students to take lab notebooks home after the lab on the week before the exam Ask students to bring notebooks back by the end of the exam day
Must be in the lab at the time of the final grading meeting Lab Sequence in Spring Semesters Sound First Lab 0: Principles of Loudspeakers Lab 1 & 3: Oscillators & Oscilloscopes, Hearing Lab 2: Simple Harmonic Oscillators Resonance & Damped Oscillations Lab 4: Strings Lab 5: Pipes Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Lab 7: Musical Scales Lab 8: Musical Instruments Lab 9: Reflection and Refraction Lab 10: Lenses Lab 11 & 12: Photography I & II Lab 14: Additive Color Mixing Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint Lab Sequence in Some Fall Semesters Light First Lab 9: Reflection Lab 9: Refraction Lab 10: Lenses
Lab 11 & 12: Photography I & II Lab 14: Additive Color Mixing Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint Lab 1 & 3: Oscillators & Oscilloscopes, Hearing Lab 2: Simple Harmonic Oscillators Resonance & Damped Oscillations Lab 4: Strings Lab 5: Pipes Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Lab 7: Musical Scales Physics 109 Lab Room 3124 Chamberlin Hall Power Outlet Configuration N W E 17 Two Circuit Breaker panels located in between Rm 3119 doors
- in front of Rm 3112 and Rm 3114 Name:3/G2 Voltage:208Y/120V Source:2/GP1 Room:#2303B S Room lights use separate circuit breakers #61 breaker is not used for any outlets #15 20 A #17 20 A #19 20 A #21 20 A #52 20 A #54 20 A 15 34? 2nd Power Pole 1 unit = 4 outlets
54 Top 38 24 21 Bottom 1st Power Pole 1 unit = 4 outlets 52 Top 25 27 19 Bottom 15 15 34 17 17 17
4 1 2 8 3 7 Computer fzx31241 fzx31242 fzx31243 fzx31244 fzx31245 fzx31246 fzx31247 fzx31248
5 Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 Physics 109 Lab Room 3124 Chamberlin Hall Table Configuration TA Physics 109 Lab Room 3124 Chamberlin Hall Storage Configuration L-Misc S-Misc Zoe
Parts S8 S7 L1 3/ 14 L1 4 C ab le s1 S0 /1 /2 S4
/6 Cables2 Tympani Piano Misc Chloe Yancy L9 /1 2 Storage Cabinet LIGHT (LABS 9-12) LIGHT (LABS 13-14) LIGHT (LABS 14) Cables on the wall BNC, banana SOUND (LABS 0/2) SOUND (LABS 4/6)
SOUND (LAB 7) SOUND (LAB 8) PARTS/SUPPLIES/MISCELLANEOUS Cart (CHLOE) LIGHT MISCELLANEOUS SOUND MISCELLANEOUS MISCELLANEOUS Cart (ZOE) Cart (YANCY) ELECTRONICS ELECTRONICS ACCESSORIES Cables on the wall power, extension Electr E-Acc Storage Abbrev. L9/12 L13/14 L14 Cables1 S0/2 S4/6 S7
S8 Parts Chloe L-Misc S-Misc Misc Zoe Yancy Electr E-Acc Cables2 Whiteboard TA Physics 109 Computer Setup Initial setup of Physics 109 lab computers in thawed state: 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. Just Cancel all when new devices found dialog box pops up Computer names: fzx3124x Printer suffix: uncheck Work group: PHYS109 Reboot computer Set IP address (128.104.xxx.9x) Copy 109 folder from external media like floppy disc USB Ports on Computer Spectrophotometer Sound Blaster PASCO Interface Computer Keyboard
Mouse Ethernet Because the computer is 'deep frozen,' particular USB port is assigned a specific device. The assignment avoids new device installation. Physics 109 Computer Setup 1. With Sound Interface Device (SoundBlaster) plugged in USB port, Control Panel -> Sound and Audio Devices Volume tab -> Device volume -> Advanced... -> Play Control -> Options -> Properties
Volume tab -> Device volume -> Advanced... -> Play Control Set Default device to current sound interface device (SB Live! 24-bit External) Audio tab -> Sound recording Set Speaker setup to Stereo headphones Audio tab -> Sound playback
Maximize the volume for Play Control, Wave, MIDI, Line-In/Mic-In and CD Audio Check (v) Mute for Line-In/Mic-In Slide Play Control Balance all the way to Left (left channel only) Volume tab -> Speaker settings -> Advanced... -> Advanced Audio Properties -> Speakers tab Mixer device = current sound interface device (SB Live! 24-bit External) Adjust volume for Playback Check (v) all checkboxes in Show the following volume controls: Adjust volume for Recording Check (v) all checkboxes in Show the following volume controls: Set Default device to current sound interface device (SB Live! 24-bit External) Audio tab -> Sound recording -> Volume... -> Wave In
Maximize the Volume for Line-In/Mic-In and What U Hear Check (v) Select for Line-In/Mic-In Slide Line-In/Mic-In Balance all the way to Left (left channel only) Physics 109 Computer Setup 2. DataStudio Module Interface 3. For Strings lab For Resonance & Damped Oscillation lab (see details in Lab 2 slides) Bookmarks in Browser
4. Online Sound Analysis lab @
Don't need to setup in thawed state can be changed during frozen state. Two different ways to do this 1. 2. Right Click on Desktop -> Graphics Options -> Output To -> Intel(R) Dual Display Clone -> Monitor + Digital Display Display properties -> Settings -> Advanced -> Intel(R) Graphics Media Accelerator Driver -> Graphics Properties Choose Multiple Display Twin or Dual Primary Device=Digital Display, Secondary Device=Monitor Principles of Loudspeakers Lab 0 Lab 0: Principles of Loudspeakers This is essentially a DEMO LAB (Some things not ready, but in principle.)
The Magnetic Field B 1. 2. show lines of force near permanent horse-shoe magnet, keep this demo in your hand, do not let students steal it! show compass affected by magnetic field show coil and current I make magnetic field, some magnets are not permanent show red speaker coil model as an assembly of horseshoe magnets Sound Generation
3. use rectangular coil: current I in a magnetic field B experiences a force F use small coil, signal generator at audio frequency and amplifier show vibration but no sound use same setup with speaker --> sound Why: Sound = Vibration but needs cone to vibrate air show beads jumping in speaker use toys, record player: cones are needed to make air vibrate Microphone use rectangular coil: moving wire in a magnetic field B generates a current I use speaker as microphone moving magnetic field same as moving wire: show model of stereo record player pickup use microphone to show voice Notes provided by Emeritus Professor Ugo Camerini in Fall 2003-2004.
Lab 0: Notes to TAs A demo lab TAs simply demonstrate How the electricity, magnetism, and motion are related Sound as vibration of air Speaker (same as headphone) and simple microphone TAs can establish their teaching style Students must take notes First practice of lab note taking!
Didn't bring lab notebooks? Show them what the consequences ar-r-r-r-e!!! After students learned how the demo units worked Electricity Students use them starting with Lab 1! Motion Okay to use units But the needle-pins device is an exception Magnetism Lab 0: Equipment List
Permanent horse-shoe magnet Beads Microphone Compass Needle-pin field detecting device Mini compasses field detecting device Helmholtz coil Power supply for Helmholtz coil Double pole double throw switch Red speaker coil String phone Turning fork Lumiscope Paper cone with needle Magnet-Meter-Coil Assembly Rectangular coil Battery case Small coil electromagnet JVC A-X2 Stereo Integrated Amplifier
Large Speaker Model of stereo record player pickup Turntable (Record Player) Record album (Phonograph disc records) Oscillators & Oscilloscopes Lab 1 Often combined with Lab 3 Hearing budget lab time Lab 1: Oscillators & Oscilloscopes The Oscillator 1. Using the Oscillator The Oscilloscope 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7. Using the Oscilloscope Measuring Amplitude & Period Pitch and Loudness Wave Shape Interesting Things to Do Lissajous Figures (Optional) Lab 1: Precautions Hearing Damage Warn students of the potential hearing damage by the large output amplitude from function generator.
Data and Observation Tell students to record numbers and observations directly as they appear on devices No need for second guesses or interpretations! Test Individually Test of frequency range of hearing should be done individually For semesters in which both Lab 1 and Lab 3 are covered in one lab session Ask professors to assign priorities to experiments
Write the order of experiments on the board Simply tell students that experiments had better be done in the order Never tell them some experiments are not important Lab 1: Notes to Students Hearing Damage Could occur by a large output amplitude from function generator. Data and Observation Record numbers and observations directly as they appear on devices
Test Individually Test of frequency range of hearing should be done individually Lab 1: Oscillators & Oscilloscopes Volume Control BNC T adaptor Mini-RCA adaptor Frequency Counter (UW) Freq A A BNC-RCA adaptor Function Generator (Krohn-Hite 1000A)
Press Default Setup Oscilloscope: TRIGGER Source EXT Coupling HF Reject Press "SET TO 50%" button TTL LO HI BNC Cable, 24" Oscilloscope (Tektronics TDS 2002) CH 1 EXT BNC Cable, 36" BNC Cable, 48" BNC Cable, 60"
Microphone Loudspeaker Expt 1: Using the Oscillator Frequency Counter (UW) A Freq A Just to make sure everyone gets the correct idea: 1. Turn off all equipment 2. Examine Oscillator following the manual 3. Turn on Oscillator and Frequency Counter 4. Continue the rest of experiment 1 Function Generator (Krohn-Hite 1000A) TTL LO
HI Loudspeaker Hearing Lab 3 Suggest to musicians and musicmajors to try out experiments Lab 3: Hearing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Loudness & Pitch Frequency Range of Hearing Loudness & Amplitude Pitch Discrimination
Beats Difference Tones Loudness Affects Pitch Perception Masking More on Loudness Lab 3: Hearing Audio Generator (Ramsey SG560) No done yet... GENERATOR OUTPUT - + Frequency Counter (UW) Freq A A BNC Cable, 36"
Function Generator (Krohn-Hite 1000A) Oscilloscope (Tektronics TDS 2002) CH 1 EXT TTL LO HI BNC Cable, 24" BNC Cable, 48" BNC Cable, 36" Press Default Setup Oscilloscope: TRIGGER Source EXT Coupling HF Reject
Press "SET TO 50%" button Loudspeaker Simple Harmonic Oscillators Lab 2 Lab 2: Simple Harmonic Oscillators Oscillators (We don't have time to do this part) 1. 2. 3. 4. Non-Harmonic Oscillators Harmonic Oscillators Spring Constant
Measuring Period for Different Amplitudes Changing Mass and Restoring Force Changing the Spring Constant Resonance and Damped Oscillations 1. 2. 3. 4. Damped Oscillations Effect of Damping Resonance Curve Buildup Time of Oscillation Lab 2: PASCO USB Interface Computer USB Connection: Unlike SCSI units, USB SW750 can be turned on or hot-swapped while computer is on PASCO Science Workshop 750 A
Lab 2: Resonance & Damped Oscillations Setup To Gauge In To Driver PASCO Science Workshop 750 A BNC Cable, 48" BNC Cable, 48" PASCO Interface cable (Black/Red) Strain Gauge Strain Gauge Null
Speaker Driver In Magnet Match the inscribed alphabet letters on the blade apparatus and magnet Blade apparatus Out BNC-banana adaptor Pendulum Resonance Apparatus: Blade Driver/Strain Gauge Pickup Lab 2: Strain Gauge Calibration PASCO Science Workshop 750 A
Strain Gauge Null Start recording data in DataStudio and adjust 'Strain Gauge Null' until the voltage reading becomes zero on the screen. Driver In Out Lab 2: Notes to TAs The natural frequency fN and resonance frequency fR are Near 10.6 Hz for all Stainless Steel blades
Usually slightly different in students' data while the lecture teaches that they are exactly the same Plucking method for damped oscillation measurements Push the copper paddle toward the vertical frame The paddle will never hit the frame upon release Produce 5~6 V by the initial displacement With too large a displacement, The speaker system couples to the damping effect A plastic deformation (yielding) of the blade could occur
The strain gauge reading usually drifts with time 1. 2. Due to electronics or relaxation Due to yielding of the blade DataStudio sometimes reports an error See slides titled "DataStudio Errors" On tables 4, 6, 7 and 8, data may have a large noise. If this happens, try the following:
Without changing frequency and amplitude, turn off driver and driver unit. Unplug power cable from the driver unit and power strip. Reconnect power cable, turn on driver unit and restart the driver Sometimes it works... Lab 2: Notes to Students Changing the frequency by 0.05 Hz Makes a large change in oscillation A near fR! Change frequency knob in one direction during resonance experiments Increasing f direction is the easiest. Plucking method for damped oscillation measurements
Push the copper paddle about 2/3 of the way toward the vertical frame from the equilibrium position DataStudio sometimes reports an error Just press "Click To Connect" icon and restart measurement On some tables, data may have a large noise Ask your TA to fix the problem! Lab 2: Damping Time Calibration by Magnet Position Adjust brass ring position to
obtain desired damping time Cu Paddle Magnet Far position: Adjust brass ring to obtain 2.2 s. Then, 0.2 Hz. Magnet 1.4~1.7 cm away from Cu paddle. Based on 4/9 Near position: Adjust brass ring to obtain 0.9 s. Then, 0.5 Hz. Magnet 0.9~1.2 cm away from Cu paddle. Lab 2: DataStudio Errors (1) Sometimes an error occurs USB units are not as good as SCSI units are. Just click OK button and follow the instruction in the next slide. Lab 2: DataStudio Errors (2) Click the "Click To Connect" icon to restore the connection to the interface.
You can also restore connection through menu item Experiment -> Connect to Interface Lab 2: DataStudio Errors (3) Now you can start new data collection Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (1) Before: DataStudio software default user interface After: Changes made to user interface for "blade-experiment.ds" Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (2) File -> Options -> Main Toolbar Settings... (Uncheck) Toolbar Item Summary (Uncheck) Toolbar Item Calculator Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (3) Graph Settings dialog box Double click anywhere inside the graph -> Graph Settings dialog box pops up Appearance tab -> Data (uncheck) Connect Data Points
Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (4) Graph Settings dialog box Axes Settings tab -> X Axis Scale (Minimum, Maximum) = (0.5 s, 8.5 s) Axes Settings tab -> Automatic Scaling (uncheck) Adjust Axes To Fit Data Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (5) Graph Settings dialog box Tools tab -> Data Point Gravity for SmartTools = 0 Uncheck Toolbar Slope Tool, Curve Fit, Calculate, Prediction and Statistics Lab 2: DataStudio Settings (6) Setup toolbar button -> Experimental Setup dialog box Press Sample Rate = 500 Hz Strings Lab 4 Lab 4: Strings
Standing Waves Modes Slinky Experiments 1. 2. Frequency of Modes Pulse on Slinky Experiments with String 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Computer as Driver Control Finding the Fundamental Mode Higher Modes
The "Plucking Game" Changing the Length of the String Changing the Tension on the String Changing the Mass Per Unit Length of the String Lab 4: Precautions Slinky Some students really abuse the slinky Write a note on the board and warn them verbally String Linear mass density of the Dacron 30# (black) ~ 0.283 g/m
Hang more than 200 g mass initially So that students will use at least 100 g when the mass is halved 50 g mass is too small for our string Students may conclude that the larger errors in the higher frequency range is due to the stiffness of the string Give them credit for this since this tells you that they are reading the lab manual carefully At higher driving frequencies, a node would appear before speaker post End of the string is no longer a relevant node for the mode
Lab 4: Notes to Students Write notes on the board and tell them verbally Slinky Could easily be damaged by a large tension Can be shaken Horizontally on the floor or Vertically in the air Needs the same tension during all slinky experiments
To keep the wave speed on slinky constant Even if the length is halved Even if it's the pulse experiment String Needs 200 g to 500 g mass initially hanging on free end Mass per unit length M/ 0.283 g/m Lab 4: Strings A sudden disruption of the existing mode of oscillation occurs momentarily when the driving frequency is changed using DataStudio based frequency control. The Ramsey SG560 audio generator does not appear to cause the disruption during the frequency change.
PASCO Science Workshop 750 A Pipes Lab 5 Lab 5: Pipes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Modes of the Pipe Effect of Length & Diameter of Pipe Acoustic Length Closed Pipes Pipes with a Fingerhole Rise & Decay of Pipe Oscillators Lab 5: Pipes Press Default Setup
Oscilloscope: TRIGGER Source EXT Coupling HF Reject Press "SET TO 50%" button Oscilloscope (Tektronics TDS 2002) CH 1 EXT BNC Cable, 36" Frequency Counter (UW) BNC Cable, 36" Freq A A Microphone Bias Power Supply Function Generator
(Krohn-Hite 1000A) Microphone Bias Switch: ON during use OFF after use/lab VERN TTL LO HI Sound-insulating Box BNC Cable, 24" BNC Cable, 60" Fine frequency tuning with vernier (VERN) knob Speaker Switch Speaker Switch:
ON during use ON/OFF for rise time experiments Lab 5: Pipes Rubber Band Rubber Band Speaker Sound-insulating Box Face the speaker toward the bottom edge of the box Rubber Plug for making Closed Pipe Align the end of the pipe and the edge of the speaker 40 cm 20 cm Pipe with a fingerhole place the hole farther away from the speaker Fourier Analysis
Lab 6 Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Fourier Synthesis 1. 2. 3. Two Sine Waves of the Same Frequency Building a Square Wave from Sine Waves Does One Hear Phase? Fourier Analysis 1. 2. 3. Fourier Analysis of Sine Waves Fourier Spectrum of the Square Wave Fourier Analysis of Your Voice Lab 6: Fourier Analysis
PASCO Fourier Synthesizer (7 sets): Oscilloscope (8 sets): Connect (2) Sound Interface Cable to the device (currently Sound Blaster Live! 24-bit External USB unit). Connect (1) cable to the speaker jack labeled FRONT on the back panel of the device. Connect (1) cable to the audio input jack labeled LINE IN on the back panel of the device. Speaker (8 sets):
Attach (1) BNC Female to Female Barrel Connector to each Sound Interface Cable (a monaural 1/8 mini-jack to BNC adapter cable). Sound Interface Device (8 sets): Set all oscilloscopes to use the external trigger; set the trigger source to EXT in the TRIG MENU. Filter out high-frequency noise in trigger signal; set coupling to HF Reject. Sound Interface Cable (16 sets): Plug in (1) BNC-banana adapter (Dual Banana to BNC Coaxial adaptor) to each of (3) output banana terminals on the synthesizer. Make sure the polarity is correct; there is a ground bump on the dual banana plug connector. Speaker output terminals are not grounded. All synthesizers are currently in working condition. One of the units have less than perfect switches; you just need to wiggle them to make them work happily. These synthesizers will be phased out when they break; they are discontinued now.
Attach (1) 48 BNC cable to the loudspeaker. Keep the cable on the loudspeaker all the time. Switching Audio Input and Microphone Input: TAs or students need to switch the sound interface cable from the audio input jack to the microphone input jack labeled MIC IN on the front panel of the sound interface device. The MIC IN signal goes through an audio frequency band-pass filter and has a precedence over LINE IN signal. The LINE IN input can take the output signal from the function generator and the Fourier synthesizer. Dont overload the input. Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Experiment 1: Students could miss ideas about amplitude when canceling two sine waves they might conclude that they can't cancel. Fourier Synthesis Experiment 1, 2 and 3 (Printed Manual)
Experiment 3: Sound generated by PASCO synthesizer changes while changing phase quickly same as Doppler shift for a short while. FOURIER SYNTHESIZER (PASCO) TRIGGER OUTPUT 10K OUTPUT 8 OUTPUT Press Default Setup Oscilloscope: TRIGGER Source EXT Coupling HF Reject Press "SET TO 50%" button
BNC Cable, 36" BNC Cable, 48" Oscilloscope (Tektronics TDS 2002) CH 1 EXT BNC Cable, 24" BNC Cable, 36" Loudspeaker Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Using java applet on the computer: Experiment 1: Students could miss ideas about amplitude when canceling two waves the default amplitudes are the same. Fourier Synthesis
Experiment 1, 2 and 3 (Online Manual) There is a Bookmark in the browser for online manual at
FRONT LINE IN Sound Blaster USB BNC Cable, 24" Rear Panel Loudspeaker BNC Cable, 48" Sound Interface Cable BNC Barrel Adapter USB Cable for Sound Interface Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Fourier Analysis Experiment 1 (Printed Manual)
Frequency Counter (UW) A *** Do not move or strain Sound Interface Device use a long BNC cable and adapter to extend reach! Freq A Function Generator (Krohn-Hite 1000A) Computer Sound Interface Device (SoundBlaster) TTL LO HI FRONT LINE IN
BNC Cable, 24" USB BNC Cable, 60" Rear Panel A sine wave input shows up as a line in Fourier spectrum. Slowly changing the frequency of the function generator gives students a good idea about what Fourier spectrum shows. Also, point out about 60 Hz power line noise when it is present. Sound Interface Cable Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Fourier Analysis Experiment 2 (Online Manual) Use Fourier Analysis applet online. Do not use the printed manual for this part. Fourier Analysis applet shows the real Fourier coefficients for square wave.
Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Computer Fourier Analysis Experiment 3 (Online Manual) USB Sound Interface Cable Sound Interface Device (SoundBlaster) MIC 8 Volume Rear Panel MIC IN Front Panel *** Do not move or strain Sound Interface Device
use a long BNC cable and adapter to extend reach! BNC Cable, 60" Microphone Lab 6: Problems Solved Audio Input: The printed version of the manual ask students to connect the PASCO Fourier synthesizer or the function generator to the computer for the Fourier analysis. So far, I do not see any ways to make the connection work. The two major problems are the possible overloading of the audio input and the distortion of the non-sinusoidal signal. ***Do NOT let students connect the devices to the computer. There is a DC offset in the audio input internal circuit on the computer motherboard.
Speaker and Microphone: there is no way to fix this hardware problem so we removed the lowest 20 Hz from the Fourier spectrum in Fourier Analyzer java applet. Use the loudspeaker (box speaker) to listen to the computer generated sound. The internal speaker on the DELL GX260 computer, when sounding together with other computers', is rather useless. To do this lab using computers, connect the loudspeaker to the right channel speaker output on the computer using the BNC-audio plugs used for microphones. As of 11/27/05, three of the computers have individual cable for the speaker and the microphone. Other four don't. ***We need 5 more BNC-audio cables so that we could connect the microphone and the loudspeakers to the computer at the same time. Noises: 60 Hz noise appears if the unconnected BNC plug is floating
solution: physically attach the BNC ground to the microphone block Lab 6: Fourier Analysis Computer in general: Use (check) MIC Boost for recording control control panel sounds and audio devices audio tab sound recording - volume options - advanced controls microphone - advanced other controls - MIC Boost
microphone volume maximum Musical Scales Lab 7 Lab 7: Musical Scales The Just Scale 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tuning Triads Sensitivity to Tuning The Black Keys of the Keyboard The Missing Black Keys Problems With the Just Scale The Tempered Scale Transposition 1. 2.
Major Scale Minor Scale Lab 7: Musical Scales Frequency Counter (UW) Loudspeaker Press Default Setup Oscilloscope: TRIGGER Source Ch 1 or EXT Coupling HF Reject Press "SET TO 50%" button Freq A A BNC Cable, 36" BNC Cable, 48" Oscilloscope (Tektronics TDS 2002)
CH 1 EXT BNC Cable, 36" BNC Cable, 36" Power Switch for Keyboard Tuner (back panel) Keyboard Tuner (UW) Keyboard Keyboard cable Power Switch for Keyboard Musical Instruments Lab 8 Lab 8: Musical Instruments The Voice (FA) 1. 2. 3. 4.
Source of Sound Formant Same Vowel Different Pitch Different Vowel Same Pitch Guitar 1. 2. 3. Why Frets? Placement of Frets Semitone Intervals on Guitar Timbre of Bowed String Violin (FA) Piano Hammers Wind Instruments 1. 2. 3. 4.
Excitation Mechanism Length of Pipe Natural Scale Changing the Length of the Pipe with Valves Tympani (Kettle Drum) Lab 8: Precautions Tuning and adjustment of instruments The reeds for Clarinet, Oboe, and Saxophone must be wet before they are used Ask all students to clean any reeds after their use Don't use ethanol on varnished surfaces
We only have a limited number of reeds Bring in a gallon bottle of distilled water and two beakers for this purpose The pink-colored germicide, obtained from a music store, or the ethanol can be used for disinfection purposes Must be done by those who play that particular instrument A Double Base player actually damaged the hair on the bow for Viola Two or three reeds are enough for one semester Don't let students take these reeds with them Use the masking tape to close the f-holes on Viola or Violin
Masking tapes should stick better and leaves less glue on the surface And *hide* the scotch tapes (scotch tapes are bad!!!) So that students will not use them accidentally Lab 8: Musical Instruments Computer USB Sound Interface Cable Sound Interface Device (SoundBlaster) MIC 8 Volume Rear Panel Rear Panel
MIC IN Front Panel BNC Cable, 60" Microphone Reflection and Refraction Lab 9 Lab 9: Reflection and Refraction Law of Reflection Law of Refraction (Snells Law) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Index of Refraction The Critical Angle Total Internal Reflection Dispersion Light Passing through a Window Pane or Prism How Large does a Mirror Need to be? Location of Mirror Image Rainbows Corner Reflectors Fiber Optics Polarization by Reflection Lab 9: Reflection and Refraction
Law of Reflection Law of Refraction (Snells Law) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Index of Refraction The Critical Angle Total Internal Reflection Dispersion Light Passing through a Window Pane or Prism How Large does a Mirror Need to be? Location of Mirror Image Rainbows
Corner Reflectors Fiber Optics Polarization by Reflection Lab 9: Reflection and Refraction Law of Reflection Law of Refraction (Snells Law) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Index of Refraction The Critical Angle Total Internal Reflection Dispersion Light Passing through a Window Pane or Prism How Large does a Mirror Need to be? Location of Mirror Image Rainbows Corner Reflectors Fiber Optics Polarization by Reflection Lab 9: Precautions For semesters in which both Reflection and Refraction labs are covered in one lab session Ask professors to assign priorities to experiments Write the order of experiments on the board Simply tell students that experiments had better be done in the order Never tell them some experiments are not important Lab 9: Reflection
Light Unit Slits on front side Light Unit Component Component Square Nut Normal Light Unit Light Unit Normal Light Unit Power Jack
Light ray aligned on Normal line If light ray misses Normal line Lab 9: Reflection Half-Coated Mirror Lab Door Flat Mirror Warn students about laser! Also, block all possible paths for stray beams around the corner mirror 12" 12" Glass Plate Circular Polarizer
Lab 9: Reflection The front coated mirror is the ideal mirror but is prone to scratch and grease. For this reason, we have not found a useful front surface mirror for use in our laboratory. Component The refraction in the front glass the mirror is a back surface (second surface) mirror shifts the real reflection point from the Normal line on the Ray Table. As a result, careful measurement of both angles on the Ray Table are not the same at all incident angles. Only careless measurements would show that both angles are the same for all incident angles. i
Normal r' r i r' i=r Lab 9: Refraction Light Unit Light Unit Component Component Face grounded side down Normal
Light Unit Light Unit Normal Light Unit Power Jack Light ray aligned on Normal line If light ray misses Normal line Lab 9: Refraction http://www.rosco.com/images/filters/roscolux.jpg Expt 1: Index of Refraction Not only the light ray must go through the center of the semicircle, but also the center of the Ray Table must coincide with the center of the semicircle.
Component A small misalignment of semicircle results in a large error in the index of refraction. Light Unit Normal Normal Component Expt 2: The Critical Angle Expt 3: Total Internal Reflection Light Unit Expt 4: Dispersion m Co
nt ne o p Light Unit al rm No Expt 5: Light Passing through a Window Pane or Prism Normal Component Light Unit Light Unit
Normal Component Window Pane Prism Lenses Lab 10 Lab 10: Lenses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Focal Length
Magnification Lens Equation Depth of Field Spherical Aberrations and Curved Focal Plane Chromatic Aberration Astigmatism Barrel and Pin Cushion Distortion Diverging Lenses Lab 10: Lenses PASCO Tape Light Unit http://www.rosco.com/images/filters/roscolux.jpg #1 S P
D Lens #1 Lens #2 Converging Lens Diverging Lens mm Screen Light Unit Aperture Peripheral Mask Central Mask Optical Bench
PASCO Lens Focal Lengths Label size on PASCO lenses: W1.0" H0.5" +200 mm (#1) +100 mm (S or #2) +250 mm (P) -150 mm (D) #1 S P D #1
S P D Lens #1 Lens #2 Converging Lens Diverging Lens Light Unit mm Plastic ruler is on the light source! Inner circle diameter: 10 mm Expt 1: Focal Length
Separate more than 10 m this arrangement gives only a few % error in the absence of aberrations Top view Parallel rays from light source at o = " 0 Lens Screen Expt 2: Magnification Expt 3: Lens Equation Screen Lens #1 & #2 mm 0
Light Unit Light Unit Power Jack Expt 4: Depth of Focus (Field) Move screen Aperture Light Unit Lens # 2? Find the range (depth) of good focus Expt 5: Spherical Aberrations and Curved Focal Plane Aperture Screen
Light Unit Lens # 1? Examine image qualities Move lightly Aperture and Peripheral Mask Central Mask Expt 6: Chromatic Aberration Adjust screen Aperture Light Unit Lens # 2?
Roscolux Color Filters Compare the position of good focus #27 Medium Red #83 Medium Blue if they are too dark, try #26 Light Red #80 Primary Blue Photography Lab 11 & 12 to be Done in a Single Session Lab 11: Photography (I) Taking a Picture Proper Exposure 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. Film Sensitivity ISO F-Number (F-Stop) Shutter and Exposure Time Light Meters Choice of Exposure Time vs. F-Number Take a Picture and Develop the Film Lab 12: Photography (II) Making an Enlargement 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Enlarger Photographic Paper Exposing a Test Strip
Developing the Test Strips Making the Enlargement Lab 11 & 12: Precautions Lighting units are equipped with unprotected halogen lamps Avoid prolonged skin contact with the developer chemicals Warn students NOT to touch the bulbs at all times Use tongs to minimize the exposure Instruct students to wash their hands after they are done with developing films and prints Lab 11 & 12: Notes
Demonstrate Using Camera (slide) part to students Use the demo cartridge loaded with exposed film on two sides Apply the basic concepts illumination, focal plane, ISO number, exposure time and / introduced in lecture Processes and Timeline 1. 2. 3. 4. Take pictures with proper exposure on film 20 ~ 30 min (lab) Develop and fix negative image on film 20 ~ 30 min (dark room) Dry film / Write up
20 ~ 30 min (lab) Make enlargements of negative images 20 ~ 30 min (dark rooms with enlargers) Lab 11: Equipment (1) Quick Release Plate with 3/8" Screw http://www.bhphotovideo.com/bnh/controller/ home? O=details_accessories&A=details&Q=&sku=5 294&is=REG&addedTroughValue=5280_REG &addedTroughType=accessory_detail http://www.manfrotto.com/webdav/site/manfrotto/shared/ _images/Manfrotto/product_images/475_closeda.jpg http://www.manfrotto.com/webdav/site/manfrotto/shared/ _images/Manfrotto/product_images/zoom/normal/229.jpg Our units are equipped with unprotected halogen bulb
http://www.smithvictor.com/images/products/ large/401017.jpg http://www.smithvictor.com/images/products/ large/401461C.jpg Graphic Camera Button may be here Pacemaker Speed Graphic and Pacemaker Crown Graphic Manufactured by Graflex in the 50s ~ 70s focal length = 135 mm / range 4.7 5.6 8 11 16 22 32 exposure time T B 1 2 5 10 25 50 100 200 400 Lens cover plate flips open when a hidden button is pressed
the button is underneath the leather covering of the camera the button is either on the top or side you can feel a small bump (a half inch diameter) Button may be here Camera Setup then http://www.manfrotto.com/webdav/site/manfrotto/shared/ _images/Manfrotto/product_images/475Ba.jpg http://www.manfrotto.com/webdav/site/manfrotto/shared/ _images/Manfrotto/product_images/zoom/normal/229.jpg Films Emulsion Side ILFORD Ortho Plus ISO 40 (Tungsten) ~ 80 (daylight) safe under ILFORD 906 filtered safelight (dark red) 1.2m/4ft away
The emulsion faces the user when sheet film is held in the position shown Back Side Notch KODAK Kodalith Ortho 2556, Type 3 Students should not use this film ISO 8 (Tungsten) ~ 25 (daylight) Safe under KODAK 1A filtered safelight ISO 8 seems to work best in unofficial testing...
No notch... Less saturated color Emulsion Side Back Side Film Cassette Load 4" 5" sheet film Load in total darkness or under indirect KODAK 1A filtered safelight Emulsion side facing dark slide Double sided Load up to two films on one cassette White strip for unexposed film Black Strip for exposed film dark slide
Use reverse side of dark slide to indicate the film is exposed to light Emulsion Side flip open Emulsion Side 45 Film Holder by Fidelity manufacturing company, Sun Valley Ca. Using Camera 1. 2. 3. Arrange object Use light meter Setup camera
Open shutter Set the smallest f/ Focus better on subject Focus image on groundglass plate Set f/ & exposure time Arrange perfect picture Close shutter 4. Load cassette
5. 6. Insert cassette Remove dark slide on the object side Take picture Unload cassette Flip and replace dark slide cover Lock dark slides Unload cassette Using Light Meter f-number
Set ISO and exposure time Measure ambient light near object Slide the diffuser over until the photodetector is covered Control illumination using the lighting units Measure direct light from object With the exposed photodetector surface normal toward object 1. 2.
Diffuser At close distance from the object Near the camera lens If both are similar, use the settings read near the camera lens If not, good luck... or add more lighting as needed Read f/ Change to desired f/ or exposure time ISO button Inverse of "Exposure Time" Developer Solution Setup Film Developer See Developers.doc for more information KODAK Professional D-76 Developer
Net wt. 415g, 14.5 oz To make 3.8 L (1 gal) stock solution (in a tinted gallon-size bottle) 1. 2. 3. 50~55C (122~133F) 3000 mL water Add powder and stir until dissolved Add water to make 3.8 L Working developing solution for each lab session (in a tray) Stock solution:Water = 1:1 Paper Developer See Developers.doc for more information
KODAK Dektol Developer To make 3.8 L stock solution (in a tinted gallon-size bottle) 1. 2. 3. 3.32 L (3.5 Qt.) water at 32~38C (90~100F) Mix and stir Add enough water to make 3.8 L Working developing solution for each lab session (in a tray) Stock solution:Water = 1:2 Recommended Development Temp = 20C (68F) Fixer
KODAK Rapid Fixer (with hardener) Net 35 fl. oz (1 U.S. Qt. 3 fl. oz/ 1.05 L), Solution A (946 mL/ 32 fl. oz), Solution B (hardener) (104 mL/ 3 fl. oz) To make 1 U.S. gal (3.8 L) Fixer (in a gallon-size bottle) 1. 2. Start from 1.9 L (1/2 gal) water @ 16~27C (60~80F) Add Solution A 3. Add Solution B with rapid agitation
4. For Film and Plate, 946 mL For Paper, 473 mL For Film and Plate, 104 mL For Paper, 52 mL Add water to make 3.8 L (1 gal) Working Fixer solution for Films for each lab session (in a tray) undiluted stock solution Working Fixer solution for Paper for each lab session (in a tray) Stock solution:Water = 1:1
Aides Washing Aide HG89 HEICO PERMAWASH One capful for a tray full of water Drying Aide KODAK Photo-Flo 200 Solution Net wt. 4 fl. oz (118 mL) CAT 146 4502 Add contents to 6 U.S. gal (22.7L) water or dilute in the ratio of 1 part PhotoFlo Solution to 200 parts water 1 capful makes 20 oz (591 mL) or 3 capful makes U.S. gal (1.9 L) of working solution Drying wash thoroughly, bathe films about 30 sec in diluted Photo-Flo Solution, drain briefly, and hang up to dry Develop Negatives 1. Developer
2. Stop bath 3. Rinses off most of excess chemicals (running water) Wash 2 (aide) 6. Makes the developed image permanent Wash 1 5. Stops chemical reaction on developing film
Fixer 4. Chemical reaction precipitates silver on film creates contrast Removes emulsion Accelerates removal of residual Fixer solution (Permawash) Wash 3 (aide) Rinses off any excess chemicals (running water), or Promotes faster drying (Photo-Flo, standing water) Film Developing Trays film goes through all trays in the order Developer Stop Bath
Fixer Wash 1 Wash 2 Wash 3 ~ 5 min ~ 30 sec ~ 4 min ~ 30 sec ~ 30 sec ~ 1 min share with print development
Enlarger Beseler 45 MXT Two interchangeable lenses /5.6 to 32 ( for = 135mm) /4 to 22 (for = 80mm) Three independent controls for i, o and focus (both i, o) Light Source Condenser Negative Enlarging Lens & Aperture o To change magnification, M=i/o o + i = 80 cm max. i
Photographic Paper Photographic Paper ILFORD MULTI GRADE IV RC DE LUXE Slightly better contrast than Polymax 100 sheets, 8" 10", CAT1947962, MG4RCIM Safe under KODAK 1A filtered safelight Cut in right size Kodak Polymax II RC (Not available anymore) High contrast (F5) but not much gray scale Safe under KODAK 1A filtered safelight Cut in right size Making an Enlargement 1.
Make test strips 2. Measure proper exposure time for your film-paper combination Expose paper 3. Use full exposure time Develop print Go through print developing trays Make Test Strips Measure proper exposure time for particular film & paper combination e.g. 2~4 sec with f/5.6?
Focus using the smallest f/ (largest aperture diameter) This gives the brightest light and the smallest depth of focus If possible, expose with the largest f/ (smallest aperture diameter) The exposure time must be long enough for the light bulb to reach the maximum temperature for the full intensity 8" 10" 4~6 test strips 4.5 s 4.0 s 3.5 s 3.0 s 2.5 s 2.0 s 1.5 s Develop Prints 1. 2. Developer
Stop bath 3. Fixer 4. rinses off most of excess chemicals (running water) Wash 2 (aide) 6. makes the developed print permanent Wash 1 5.
stops chemical reaction on developing paper accelerates removal of residual Fixer solution (Permawash) Wash 3 (aide) rinses off any excess chemicals (running water), or promotes faster drying (Phot-Flo, standing water) Print Developing Trays paper goes through all trays in the order Developer Stop Bath Fixer Wash 1
Wash 2 Wash 3 ~ 1 min ~ 10 sec ~ 2 min ~ 30 sec ~ 30 sec ~ 30 sec share with film development Safelight Filters KODAK 1A safelight filter (light red) From KODAK Safelight Filters, TECHNICAL INFORMATION DATA SHEET, TI0845 Reissued 07-99
Additive Color Mixing Lab 14 Lab 14: Additive Color Mixing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Hue, Brightness ( intensity), Saturation (% white) Calibration of Light Meters White Chromaticity Diagram or Color Triangle Locating R, G, B on the Color Triangle
Adding Two Primaries: Blue and Green Red Added to Green; Red Added to Blue Complementary Hues Color Matching Matching Pigments Spectral Colors The Need for "Negative Intensities" Are There Other Additive Primaries? Lab 14: Precautions TAs must always control the projector fan TAs turn on the fan! And check if all units are working TAs turn off the fan only after the projectors cooled down (2~3 minutes) In the past, heat from the light bulb damaged many filters inside color projectors!!! Announce that students:
should not control the fan at all should dim projectors when not in use Statistically, 5%~10% of white male are color blind ~95% of them are red/green color blind (HHMI) Be prepared to take extra care for these students Bring the following items to the electronics shop (3336 CH) when a projector bulb burns out: 1. 2. Projector unit
Appropriate projector light bulb in a box in PARTS/SUPPLIES/MISCELLANEOUS cabinet Color projectors 300 W bulb White projectors 500 W bulb Lab 14: Notes to Students Let TAs turn on/off the fan Dim projectors when not in use Lab 14: Projector Setup Power Strip Spectroscope Projector Adaptor Aperture
BNC L-shape Adaptor White and Color Projectors Plastic Color Filters Gray Filters Projector Screen & Projector Screen Stand Power Extension Cable http://www.rosco.com/images/filters/roscolux.jpg Projector Controller Stool Lab 14: Projector Setup BNC L-shape adaptor BNC cable, 48"
Black Cable for Bulb To Dimmer Controller Gray Cable for Fan To Power Strip Used by computer at the table Lab 14: Projector Setup Projector Screen Give enough separation to make the focused spot on the screen Adjustable Leg Screw Lock
Projector Screen Stand on A-Base Stool Lab 14: Projector Setup White Projector Side View Face View Gray Filter Projector Adaptor Side View Face View Reducing the light intensity by dimmer lowers the filament temperature shifts the spectral distribution toward red. You can use neutral density filters on the projector adaptor or use the PASCO aperture hang on the projector adaptor.
Aperture can be used to reduce the intensity of white light as well Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint Lab 13 Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint 1. 2. 3. 4. Experiments with Filters: Color Samples & Paints (Pigments) Mixing Paint Spectra of Light Sources fzx31241.pwe xxx.xxx.xxx.91 Ocean Optics Spectrophotometer
fzx31241 USB2G11391 USB Serial Number Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Computer fzx31241 fzx31242 fzx31243 fzx31244 fzx31245 fzx31246 fzx31247
fzx31248 USB Serial Numbers USB2G11391 USB2G11348 USB2G11347 USB2G11354 USB2G7546 USB2G11353 USB2G11351 USB2G11364 Spectrophotometer Box Match the computer and spectrophotometer by USB serial number fzx31241 USB2G11391
All computers are deep frozen and only remember the USB ports used during the device setup The software remembers the calibration data for the specific spectrophotometer Lab 13: Spectrophotometer Setup Snapshot Button Computer Halogen Lamp Switch USB Cable (White) fzx31241 USB2G11391 Spectrophotometer 15 W Halogen Lamp & Heat Absorbing Glass OOI Base32 Probe Tip &
Probe Cover (Red Cap) Lab 13: Precautions Probe Cover (Red Cap) First TA of the day removes it from the probe tip Last TA of the day replaces it Specular Reflection Misalign the probe slightly to avoid it Polished Surface on Probe Tip Avoid contact by finger Avoid contact with paint Clean using a lens paper and ethanol when accident happens...
Heat from Halogen Bulb Have Damaged Gray Filters So we installed the heat absorbing glass before Fall 2006 semester and it may be working But use the snapshot feature in software to freeze the screen Then remove the filter from the holder Lab 13: Notes to Students Polished Surface on Probe Tip Avoid contact by finger Avoid contact with paint Use the snapshot feature in software Freeze the screen Then remove the filter from the holder Lab 13: Using OOIBase32 1. Settings
2. 3. Integ. time = 25 ms or make intensity ~3000 Average = Boxcar =10 Check "Correct for Elect. Dark" Setup reference surface In scope (S) mode Take dark reference Take reference surface spectrum 4. Press Store Dark button while source light is off Press Store Reference button while source light is on
In Specular reflection (R) or Transmission (T) mode 5. Check if reflection or transmission is 100% Measure filter or pigment Use snapshot feature to avoid prolonged exposure of plastic filters under the halogen lamp Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Filters & Paint Gray Filters (0.3 Optical Density & others) Plastic Magenta Filters Dichroic (Ideal) Filters
Plastic Color (Real) Filters Paints Daler-Rowney System 3 Acrylic Paints Process Yellow 675, Process Cyan 120 & Fluorescent Pink (instead of Process Magenta 412) CHROMA A2 Acrylic Paints Titanium White & Carbon Black See "Paint_Mixing_Lab_Solution.pdf" for solutions to the paint mixing part of the lab. The results of mixing the black and white do not follow the rules explained by pupa's paint addition method. Pupa Gilbert and Willy Haeberli are publishing an article on this paint mixing. It might explain some of the reasons. Assorted Color Papers Need: Yellows high & low saturation Need: Red & Pink Need: Orange & Brown and any other colors Spectroscope http://www.rosco.com/images/filters/roscolux.jpg Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Paint
Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Paint Lab 13: Subtractive Color: Paint Neutral Density Filters x y 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9 79.43 63.10 50.12 39.81 31.62 25.12 19.95 15.85 12.59 1.0 10 x: Density y: % Transmission z: Transmittance y 10 2 x z 10 x Density 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 # in lab 5 5 0 0
9 5 5 4 8 4 TAs: 1. update the number of filters 2. check for any signs of heat damage like hardening and cracks Safelight Filters For Photography Lab For Dark Rooms Safelight Filters KODAK OC safelight filter (Light
amber) From KODAK Safelight Filters, TECHNICAL INFORMATION DATA SHEET, TI0845 Reissued 07-99 Safelight Filters KODAK 1 safelight filter (red) From KODAK Safelight Filters, TECHNICAL INFORMATION DATA SHEET, TI0845 Reissued 07-99 Safelight Filters KODAK 2 safelight filter (dark red) From KODAK Safelight Filters, TECHNICAL INFORMATION DATA SHEET, TI0845 Reissued 07-99 Safelight Filters ILFORD 902 filtered safelight (light brown) comparable to KODAK OC safelight filter ILFORD FACT SHEET, SAFELIGHT FILTERS AND DARKROOM LAMPS, October 2002
Safelight Filters ILFORD 906 filtered safelight (dark red) comparable to KODAK 2 safelight filter ILFORD FACT SHEET, SAFELIGHT FILTERS AND DARKROOM LAMPS, October 2002 Spectra of Light Sources For Subtractive Color Lab For Spectra of Light Sources Discharge Lamps Gas H2 Color Wavelength () Violet Violet Blue Red
Red 4200 4400 4900 6700 6700 Violet Violet Violet Blue Blue Blue Blue Green Green Yellow Red Red Red 4000
4400 4400 4500 4550 4550 4800 5000 5100 5850 6500 6800 7200 He Gas Water Color Wavelength () Violet
Violet Blue Green Green Green Green Red Red Red 4300 4400 4900 5200 5400 5500 5600 6050 6100 6650 Information from ELECTRO-TECHNIC PRODUCTS INC. manufacturer of the discharge lamps
Prominent neon lines (nm) Color Violet Violet Blue Red Red Discharge Lamps 4200 4400 4900 6700 6700 Hydrogen Discharge Lamps Helium (nm) 438.793
443.755 447.148 471.314 492.193 501.567 504.774 587.562 667.815 s=strong m=med w=weak Intensity w w s m m s w s m
Helium Prominent neon lines (nm) Color 540.1 green 585.2 yellow 588.2 yellow 603.0 orange 607.4 orange 616.4 orange 621.7 red-orange 626.6 red-orange 633.4 red 638.3 red 640.2 red 650.6 red 659.9 red 692.9 red 703.2 red Discharge Lamps Neon
Discharge Lamps Prominent mercury lines (nm) Color 435.835 blue 546.074 green 576.959 579.065 yellow-orange 404.656 407.781 blue 491.604 weak Mercury Filter Selections For Lenses and Additive Color Mixing Labs Roscolux Filter Colors #10 Medium Yellow #23 Orange #26 Light Red #27 Medium Red
#337 True Pink #46 Magenta #346 Tropical Magenta #74 Night Blue #80 Primary Blue #83 Medium Blue #89 Moss Green #389 Chroma Green #90 Dark Yellow Green #91 Primary Green #92 Turquoise #93 Blue Green #95 Medium Blue Green #10 Medium Yellow #23 Orange
#26 Light Red #27 Medium Red #337 True Pink, #46 Magenta #346 Tropical Magenta #74 Night Blue, #80 Primary Blue, #83 Medium Blue #89 Moss Green #389 Chroma Green #90 Dark Yellow Green #91 Primary Green #92 Turquoise, #93 Blue Green, #95 Medium Blue Green Equipment and Supplies For various supplies and musical instruments
Strings PASCO Elastic Wave Cord (do not use this elastic cord) mass: 12.773 g length: 305.0 cm : 0.04188 g/cm when driven, the cord stretches and the linear mass density decreases Ward-Brodt Music 2200 West Beltline Highway, P.O. Box 259810, Madison, WI 53725-9810 608-661-8600 or 800-369-6255
Ward-Brodt Music Recorder Soprano (~$6.00, plastic $6.50-$7.50) Alto ($25.00, plastic) Irish Whistles (~$7.00) Saxophone Sopranino (rare) Soprano Alto (we have this) Tenor Baritone Bass sax Ward-Brodt Music Clarinet
Sopranino (Eb) Soprano (Bb) we have this (most popular type) Alto Bass Contra-Bass Oboe (only one type) Ward-Brodt Music Reeds Soak 1~2 minutes in H2O before use Oboe (Double Reeds)(*)-Emerald
Soft Medium Soft (*) Medium (*), (we have this: ~$7.00 each) Medium Hard Hard Clarinet (Single Reeds), Alto Sax (Single Reeds) 1 (Soft),1_1/2, 2 2_1/2 (we have this for both Clarinet and Alto Saxophone brand name RICO) 3, 3_1/2, 4, 4_1/2, 5 (Hard) Spruce Tree Music & Repair 851 E. Johnson St., Madison, WI 53703 (608)255-2254
Violin (we have full size) Viola (we have 16") Guitars Aria/Korea/MDL AW-73N Yamaha/Japan/MDL F6-140 String thickness String Guitar Violin Viola E5 (0.010) A4 (0.026)
A4 (0.028) D4 (0.0315) G3 E4 (0.012) D4 B3 (0.016) G3 (0.024)
D3 (0.032) C3 C3 A2 (0.042) E2 (0.053) Spectroscope PATON HAWKSLEY EDUCATION LTD http://www.patonhawksley.co.uk/index.html
Red Filter for Slide Projector Melles Griot 03 FCG 503 Sharp Cutoff (Long-Pass) Filter Material : RG 630 Unit Price: $34.00 (http://shop.mellesgriot.com/products/optics/detail.asp? pf_id=03%20FCG%20503&plga=079632&mscssid=) Neutral Density Filters Kodak WRATTEN neutral density filters from Edmund Optics (http://www.edmundoptics.com/onlinecatalog/DisplayProduct.cfm?productid=1327, home : online catalog : optics : filters and diffusers : neutral density : film : Kodak Wratten Neutral Density Filters ): Description: FILTER ND WRATTEN 0.3 OD Optical Density: 0.300 Transmission (%): 50 Stock Number: NT53-703
Price: $53.50 Density 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
# 5 5 0 0 9 5 5 4 8 4
Artist and Craftsman Supply 449 State St, Space D, Madison, WI 53703 Phone: 866-848-2977, (608)251-2977, Fax: (608)251-2944 Store hours: M-F 10a - 8p, Sat-Sun 10a - 6p Lily (Contact person) Daler-Rowney System 3 Acrylic Paints Process Magenta 412, $2.49 (do not use this) Fluorescent Pink Process Yellow 675, $2.49 Process Cyan 120, $2.49 CHROMA A2 Acrylic Paints Titanium White, $3.22 Carbon Black, $3.22 Extras
2 2 Grids for ND Wratten Filters M C B G R Y M C B G
R Reflectance Reflectance Transmittance Y Wavelength (nm) Y M C Y M C
B G R B G R Reflectance Transmittance Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm)
0 400 500 600 700 Wavelength (nm) Color Triangle fraction of green (g) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 fraction of red (r) 1