Title Slide - homepages.warwick.ac.uk

Title Slide - homepages.warwick.ac.uk

Ambiguity and vagueness: Complex links between words and concepts Can you pass me the pen? Homograph : written same pen v. pen bass v. bass Homophone : sound same write v. right to v. two Ambiguous expression: more than one distinct interpretation (like a Necker cube) Homophones and homographs are ambiguous words Vague expression: some aspect left indeterminate He ran to the bus. Polysemy: cake v. cake (of soap) chicken v. chicken Overview

Ambiguity Vagueness and instantiation The ambiguity-vagueness spectrum Ambiguity 1. Psycholinguistic evidence of multiple access, and early selection in limited situations 2. Computational models of sense selection processes 3. Psycholinguistic data on cerebral hemispheres Evidence for automatic multiple access of meanings Swinney (1979); Onifer & Swinney (1981) Cross-modal priming with lexical decision. Listen: The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches and other [email protected] in the corner of his room See target: spy, ant or sun Response: is it a word?

Results: targets related to either sense facilitated whether... in strongly biasing contexts homonym balanced or 'biased' (e.g. pen) both nouns, or noun/verb (e.g. duck, saw) one second later: no facilitation for inappropriate meaning Evidence for selective access of meanings Seidenberg et al. (1982) selective access in priming (but not biasing) contexts Biasing - world knowledge could decide The man walked on the deck Priming - direct relationships between lexical items The man inspected the ship's deck Evidence for selective access of meanings Tabossi (1988; Tabossi, Colombo & Job, 1987) Feature priming contexts can select the dominant sense of a

biased homograph (Lexical decision task) The violent hurricane did not damage the ships which were in the port. Facilitation for SAFE but not for RED Deceived by their identical colour, the host took a bottle of Barolo, instead of one of port. Facilitation for SAFE as well as RED When features prime subordinate senses: multiple access Model to resolve correct meaning 1 Adraiens & Small (1988) - word expert parsing word represented as a network of tests to discriminate senses ("expert") bug: Was the previous word a determiner? ANNOY (event) Assign roles to nearby concepts Is the topic of spying in focus?

LISTENING DEVICE (thing) Construct that concept INSECT (thing) Construct that concept Model to resolve correct meaning 2 Hirst (1987) Polaroid words automatic multiple access Complex system with several parts Word representations - active Blackboard World knowledge store associative links SUBJ The slug operated OBJ the vending machine SUBJ The slug operated OBJ SUBJ agent {animate}; patient {a thing}; instrument {physical object};

source {physical object}; destination {physical object} slug small slimy garden pest; stamped piece of metal operate [cause to function agent SUBJ patient SUBJ, OBJ instrument SUBJ, with ] [perform surgery agent SUBJ patient upon, on instrument with ] OBJ World knowledge

patient {a thing}; thing transferred {a thing} agent of operate must be human SUBJ The slug = instrument Operate = cause to function OBJ the vending machine = patient Model to resolve correct meaning 3 Miller (1996) 'contextual representation' contexts when word has a given sense line: 25 -ish senses three senses (queue; text; product) up to 200 sentences using line in each sense statistical techniques look for frequent collocates (wait; write; sell) 90% accurate if two senses to learn 75% accurate if three senses to learn Some tricky examples

Can you tell me how to get rid of bugs? Ross was escorted from the bar to the dock. Complex role for world knowledge and knowledge of the specific situation, knowledge of the intended meaning (pragmatics) Vagueness and instantiation Barclay et al. (1974) heavy as a cue for piano or baby Hrmann (1983) how many is a few depends on context Interpretation a dynamic transaction with knowledge of the world The ambiguity-vagueness spectrum Linguistic tests for ambiguity dont always give clear cut results Tuggys cognitive grammar analysis ART, cake, and paint

Geeraerts (1993) Ambiguity versus vagueness: tests Linguistic Logical Definitional Three metacognitive criteria for ambiguity: 1. Linguistic zeugma test: On a crossed reading, (a) is fine, but (b) creates a feeling linguists call zeugma (a) Your mother's sister is your aunt, and so is your father's sister. (b) John is holding a ball for you, and so is the Psychology Society. 2. Logical contradiction test: On crossed readings, (b) is fine, but (a) is not (a) This woman is your aunt but she is not your aunt. (b) This ball is not a ball. 3. Definitional criterion: Can you write a covering definition? Pool: gathered liquidity Tuggy (1993) Polysemy

paint (v.) painting a portrait in oils on a canvas painting lines on the road I have been painting and so has Jane When does the zeugma go? Tuggys cognitive grammar analysis Entrenchment of cognitive structures Schema what a set of cognitive structures share Salience Elaborative distance between schema and instance (the extent of additional cognitive structure) Ambiguity - more than one distinct well-entrenched cognitive structure - no well-entrenched elaboratively close schema

ball entity spherical toy formal dance Vagueness - no well-entrenched distinct cognitive structures - well-entrenched elaboratively close schema aunt parent's sister mother's sister father's sister ball entity spherical toy formal dance aunt

parent's sister mother's sister father's sister cake a small cake intended for one person only large [cake] cut into slices fish cakes rice cakes cakes of soap cake COBUILD {a small cake intended for one person only large [cake] cut into slices} {fish cakes rice cakes} {cakes of soap}

cake Experiment 1 repertory grid task Experiment 2 property rating task cake concept representation small sweet edible flat round flour birthday cake 0.1

0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 rice cake 0.9 0.3 0.9 0.6 0.8

0.1 Adaptive Resonance Theory Carpenter & Grossberg (1987, 1988) Plasticity stability dilemma plastic accommodate new patterns stable learning a new category must not mess up old ones vigilance vigilance set to 0.98 {small cakes}, {large cakes}, {rice cakes}, {fish cakes}, {soap cakes} vigilance set to 0.94 {small cakes, large cakes}, {rice cakes, fish cakes}, {soap cakes} Apply colour to surface. Apply makeup to face.

Apply disinfectant to patients body. Tuggy analysis Apply paint to surface. Artistic paint Paint portraits Utilitarian paint. Cover large area with single colour of paint Decorative paint Trompe

loeil Paint road stripes Paint trim Paint houses Paint interior walls Paint exterior Tuggy paint (a) artistic trim (eg. border on wall) (b) utilitarian

2. lipstick 3. medication Dictionary paint COBUILD (usage based) utilitarian paint (walls & other objects) paint a picture paint a design or message on a surface lipstick with words Dictionary paint OED 1. (a) 1290 paint a picture (b) 1386 do that on a wall (c) 1561 with words 2. 1250 utilitarian paint (wall, door etc.) 3. 1382 lipstick (Forsothe Iezabel.. peyntyde hyre eezen with strumpetis oyntment) 4. 1861 medication applied with a brush 5. 1853 to drink (obsolete)

0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 WaterColour Canvas Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling

Car WaterColour Canvas Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas

Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder

Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas

Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas Mural WBorder Ceiling

Car WaterColour Canvas WBorder Ceiling Car WaterColour Canvas WBorder Ceiling Car

WaterColour Canvas OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick Mural OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder Ceiling Car Participant number 3 WaterColour

WaterColour 0.97WaterColour Canvas Canvas Canvas WaterColour 0.96WaterColour WaterColour 0.95WaterColour WaterColour 0.94WaterColour WaterColour 0.93WaterColour WaterColour 0.92WaterColour WaterColour 0.91WaterColour WaterColour 0.90WaterColour WaterColour

0.88WaterColour WaterColour Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas Canvas 0.98

Participant number 18 Mural OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick Mural OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow

Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table

OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow

Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Lipstick Mural Table OutWall Dyellow Table Lipstick WBorder WBorder WBorder Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling

Car Car Car WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder WBorder

Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling Car Car Car Car

Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Car Overview Ambiguity Vagueness and instantiation The ambiguity-vagueness spectrum

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