Title of your presentation - kenanaonline.com

Title of your presentation - kenanaonline.com

Quarry Manager Development Program Haulage & Transportation Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers

Type of Haulers Selection Criteria's Characteristics and Specifications Hauler Performance Hauler Production Estimation Haul Road Design Criteria's Safety 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 2 Objectives Objectives:

Rock transportation requires a significant amount of energy and big size equipment. This operation is dangerous. We have to understand how we can conduct this operation in a safe manner. It is possible to optimize this process and to reduce the operating costs. 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 3 Rock Transportation Methods The Main Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts A loading machine is feeding a crusher. A mobile or semi-mobile crusher is following the quarry face.

The crusher feeds the conveyor belt. 2. Gravity 1. Glory holes, feeders of transfer points onto a conveyor belt, tunnels, crusher(s). 2. Rock slides 3. Haulers Mostly trucks but also in some applications dozer(s), wheel loader(s), scraper(s), train wagon(s). 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 4 Rock Transportation Methods The Rock Transportation Selection Criteria's are: 1. Safety

2. Environment 3. Flexibility and versatility 4. Availability 5. Effectiveness 6. Maintenance 7. Production cost 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation

5 Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 6 Rock Transportation Methods Conveyor Belts Conveyor haulage Usage of a mobile or semimobile crusher.

Extending or adding conveyor belt to the crushing unit. Feeding the crusher with a back-hoe excavator. 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 7 Rock Transportation Methods Conveyor Belts Long belt conveying to plant. Martres Quarry Conveying 0-300mm limestone to the plant 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 8 Rock Transportation Methods Conveyor Belts

Conveyor Belts Classification (1) In pit conveyor: to replace haulers / trucks: with portable /mobile crusher and steepslope belt. Overland conveyor: adapted to the terrain, they are: Very strong for long distances, Wide (900 to 1200 mm) Fast (3-6 mt/sec) High capacity (800 to 3000 tph)

In-Plant conveyor: most commonly used inside the plants, velocities from 1 to 3 m/sec. 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 9 Rock Transportation Methods Conveyor Belts Conveyor Belts Classification (2) COSTS Acquisition Cost is very high (1200 to 7000 USD/metre) Operating Cost is low: Labour Cost: very variable but low

Power Cost: very variable and low (upwards: conveyor consumes; downhill: it generates energy) Annual Maintenance: 1 2 % of installed conveyor price. When reasonable, replacing stationary crusher by a Mobile crusher + Conveyors to reduce mobile fleet must be assessed 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 10 Rock Transportation Methods Conveyor Belts Designing: Belt Width vs. Lump Size 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 12 Outline

Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 13 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Du Jiang Yan Lafarge Limestone Quarry in China Rock slide typically generate dust and an adverse visual impact

High dipping Rock slide requires a safe unloading facility 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 14 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Du Jiang Yan Limestone Quarry Rock slide stoppage of rock slide during loading Loading trucks is performed when the rock slide is not utilized and vice versa Unloading area 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 15 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity

Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Du Jiang Yan Limestone Quarry Rock slide mining operation issues Problem to operate the rock slide at the same time with crusher. Cleaning of rock slide Flying stone Action done & to be done to Improve the mining operations Modification of some parts of the rock slide Cleaning the rockslide frequently Proper design for the second rock slide. Modification of the angle to avoid the remaining of sticky materials 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 16 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Lafarge Kanthan Limestone Quarry in Malaysia

First Situation Rock slides 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 17 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Lafarge Kanthan Limestone Quarry in Malaysia Intermediate Situation (Haul Methodology) High Grade Slope 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 18 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Mining in Steep & Vertical Slope: Lafarge Kanthan Limestone Quarry in Malaysia Final Development 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation

19 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Glory Hole in the Lafarge Exshaw plant in Canada 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 20 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Glory Hole in the Lafarge Exshaw plant in Canada Limestone is introduced in the system by dumping over a 16 grizzly. The boulders > 16 are crushed in the adjacent jaw crusher. The limestone falls in a glory hole and is carried towards the impact crusher via a conveyor belt

Grizzly Bars above the glory hole 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 21 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Glory Holes and Tunnels in the Lafarge Tavernola Plant (Italy) The Tavernola CaBianca quarry is in a mountain. It consist of crushing the shot rock to a 150mm size. It is then introduced in a series of three glory holes and transfer points till a secondary crusher and final stock pile of 0-80mm. Glory Hole

081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 22 Rock Transportation Methods - Gravity Glory Holes and Tunnels in the Lafarge Tavernola Plant (Italy) Upper Tunnel Exit Glory Hole and Tunnel Project B Y = 65100 m 750 m Y = 64900 m Y = 64800 m Y = 64700 m

735 m 690 m 705 m 690 m 41 m 675 m 55 m 660 m 645 m Shaft #3 131m Phase C : Feeding shaft #2 - 1.9 M tonnes / 9.4 years 11 m Shaft #2 73m 615 m Phase B : Feeding shaft #3 - 1.3 M tonnes / 10.5 years 26 m

660 m 630 m 750 m 720 m 11 m 675 m 645 m B' 735 m Phase A : Excavate (elev.720m) the shaft #3 plate form - 48 840 tonnes / 0.6 year 720 m 705 m Glory Hole Transfer Point 600 m

585 m 630 m 26 m 615 m Phase D : Feeding shaft #1 - 4.5 M tonnes / 18.5 years Gallery 190m 570 m 600 m 585 m 570 m 555 m 555 m Current Shaft approx. 89m 540 m 540 m

8m 525 m 510 m 495 m 27 m 525 m 510 m 495 m 480 m 480 m 465 m 465 m Y = 65100 m Y = 64900 m Y = 64800 m Y = 64700 m

081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 23 Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers Type of Haulers 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation

24 Hauler Type of Hauler The Quarry Hauler Types 1. Dozer (in a rip & push quarrying methodology) 2. Wheel loader (in a load & carry quarrying methodology) 3. Scraper (for soft limestone like marl or chalk) 4. Trucks (on-road, quarry rigid frame or articulated) 5. Wagon or Train wagon (rarely used in our operations)

081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 25 Hauler Type of Hauler Dozer: Lafarge Harleyville Plant in USA. The dozer is ripping and pushing the marl to the semi-mobile lump breaker 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 26 Hauler Type of Hauler On-Road Truck Used when transportation onto public road is required between the quarry shot rock face and the crusher at the plant.

Reinforced rock boxes are offered for hauling shot rock, but typically do not last long. Re-lining the box is required. These trucks are not designed for hauling large piece of rock and therefore not ideal for shot rock applications. If these trucks are to be used, it is necessary to shoot the rock as fine as possible. Possible mismatch between on-road trucks and other quarry equipment 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 27 Hauler Type of Hauler Articulated Truck Appropriate for poor underfoot, wet conditions and steep grades. Can be offered all wheel drive.

Typically used for overburden removal, but there are also suitable shoot rock application models (lined rock boxes) The service life is shorter than in quarry trucks (rigid frame) ( 15,000 compared to 26, 000 hours) The truck load capacity range is from 25 to 40 tonnes 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 28 Hauler Type of Hauler Rigid Frame Truck High horsepower to weight ratio

Deep pits. Requires a well maintained smooth haul road surface. Can be used with any type of material ( e.g., blocky, free flowing, etc. ) Used for dumping into hoppers or over bank or fill Economic distance limited 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 29 Hauler Type of Hauler Wheel Loader Frequently used with the Load & Carry quarrying methodology

Consist of loading at the shot rock face and haul to the mobile crusher The economical hauling distance shall not exceed 100 meters It is necessary to select the proper tire brand for this application 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 30 Hauler Type of Hauler Scrapers Used when the limestone body is soft (marl, chalk)

A dozer is sometimes required to assist the scraper loading process by pushing it. This happens when wet conditions prevails or when the rock surface is slippery. Scrapers are known to be and economical hauling device when it can be utilized. 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 31 Hauler Type of Hauler Haulers Economical Distance of Transportation 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 32

Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers Type of Haulers Selection Criteria's 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 33 Hauler Selection Criteria's

Criteria's to consider for the selection of haulers Production requirement and operating schedule Material characteristics Density in place and loose, swell Size distribution, Maximum and Minimum Hardness and texture Ease of handling

Number and type of trucks selected should be based on overall system economics Select the fleet based on both operating and capital cost 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 34 Hauler Selection Criteria's Criteria's to consider for the selection of haulers Physical and climatic conditions Effect of altitude on engine efficiency

Effect of ambient temperature on engine cooling, tire performance, and use of lubricants Effect of rainfall, frost, snow, fog, etc. on road conditions and transportation Haul road characteristics Length, grade, and surface condition of segments 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 35 Hauler Selection Criteria's Criteria's to consider for the selection of haulers

Loading Space and ground conditions at loading point Type and size of loading equipment Total availability of loading equipment Dumping Dumping arrangements: rear dump into hopper, drive over hopper, edge of spoil, windrow, etc. Space and ground condition at dump point

Total availability of down stream equipment 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 36 Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers Type of Haulers

Selection Criteria's Characteristics and Specifications 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 37 Hauler - Characteristics and Specifications Hauler Dimensions vs. infrastructures and other equipment 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 38 Hauler - Characteristics and Specifications Matching the Hauler Productivity with the Productivity of the Loading Unit 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 39 Outline

Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers Type of Haulers Selection Criteria's Characteristics and Specifications Hauler Performance

081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 40 Hauler Performance The Factors Affecting the Hauler Performance 1. Rolling 2. Grade Resistance Resistance 3. Weight 4. Altitude 5. Road and Traction Deration Design 6. Tires 7. Fuel

(Quality) 8. Maintenance 9. Operators and Mechanical skills 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 41 Hauler Performance Rolling Resistance Rolling Resistance Measure of the force required to overcome internal bearing friction and the retarding effect between the tires and the ground (i.e., tire penetration and tire flexing) Expressed in terms of lb/ton vehicle weight or % vehicle weight

081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 42 Hauler Performance Grade Resistance Grade Resistance Force required to overcome gravity when moving vehicle uphill. Expressed in % vehicle weight (adds power to vehicle downhill) Vertical rise or drop (ft) x 100 Percent Grade = Horizontal Distance (ft) e.g., 60 ft rise in 1,000 ft, Grade = 60/ 1,000 x 100 = 6% Horizontal Distance = (Horizontal distance2 + vertical distance2)1/2 e.g., (1,0002 +602)1/2 = 1,001.8 ft 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 43

Hauler Performance Weights and Traction Weights and Traction Weights: determines the force required to propel vehicle Function of vehicle weight, rated capacity (CY), and density of material hauled, number of passes of excavator Traction: the force deliverable can be limited by traction conditions Usable rimpull is a function of road surface and weight on the drive wheels Usable Rimpull = Coefficient of Traction x Weight on Drive Wheels 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation

44 Hauling Performance Road Design Speed Limits: limits on curves, in pit, and on main haul roads Curves based on radius and super-elevation In pit, ramp, and main haul roads, the speed limit depends on haul road width and conditions 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 45 Hauler Performance Tires Tire Impact Can reduce the hauler productivity by limiting load and speed

Ton-mile-per-hour ratings should not be exceeded and depend on Weight (Flex/revolution) Speed (Flexes/period) Ambient Temperature Road Surface Temperature 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 46 Hauler Performance Tires

Tire KPIs TMPH = Average Tire Load x Average Speed for Shift Average Tire Load = Empty Truck Tire Load + Loaded Truck Tire Load (tons) 2 Average Speed = Round Trip (mi) x Trips/Shift Total Hours (hr) Tire type may include a maximum speed and a resulting lower productivity 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 47

Outline Objectives Rock Transportation Methods 1. Conveyor belts 2. Gravity 3. Haulers

Type of Haulers Selection Criteria's Characteristics and Specifications Hauler Performance Hauler Production Estimation 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 48 Hauler Productivity Estimation Effect of acceleration, deceleration and operator skills Speeds obtained from performance curves in handbooks indicate maximum velocity under optimum conditions on a given profile These speeds must be corrected for acceleration, deceleration, and operator performance to yield reasonable haul and return times.

F=Ma Simulation utilized to account for acceleration and deceleration Hauling cycle times simulations typically underestimate the real hauling cysle times 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 49 Hauler Productivity Estimation Estimating Hauler Cycle Time 1. Hauler Loading Time: loading machine bucket size, fill factor, excavator cycle time, loose material density, and truck capacity (typically 2 min) 2. Other Fixed Times: depend on loading method and dump configuration 3.

Spot and manoeuvre in loading area (typically .6-.8 min) Dumping (typically 1.2 1.5 min) Hauler Traveling Time (Loaded and Empty): Truck payload Effective work per hour Operating efficiency Grade and rolling resistance

Speed limit 081209 Mining Op Hauling & transportation 50

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