Three Approaches to Ethics Found in The Search for the Good Three Approaches to Ethics There are many approaches to ethics These three are chosen because they represent the three
stances from which Catholic ethics has most often operated Three Approaches to Ethics: : Teleological Teleological: Having to do with the design or the purpose of
something Every art and every scientific inquiry, and similarly every action and purpose, may be said to aim at some good. --Aristotle Three Approaches to Ethics: :
Teleological Leading proponent of this approach is Aristotle. Interpreted for Christians by St Thomas Aquinas Three Approaches to Ethics: :
Teleological Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Educated in Platos Academy Explored natural world and human experience rather than ideas
Teacher of Alexander the Great Aristotle with Bust of Homer by Rembrandt Three Approaches to Ethics: : Teleological As there are various actions, arts, and sciences, it follows
that the ends are also various Three Approaches to Ethics: : Teleological Thus health is the end of medicine Three Approaches to Ethics: :
Teleological a vessel [is the purpose] of shipbuilding Three Approaches to Ethics: : Teleological victory [is the goal] of strategy,
Three Approaches to Ethics: : Teleological and wealth [is the aim] of domestic economy. Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological
If it is true that in the sphere of action there is an end which we wish for its own sake, and for the sake of which we wish everything else it is clear that this will be the good or the
supreme good Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological Does it not follow then that the knowledge of this supreme good is of great importance for the conduct of life, and that, if
we know it, we shall be like archers who have a mark at which to aim, we shall have a better chance of attaining what we want? Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Three Approaches to Ethics:
Teleological In order to obtain the good things in life we need to follow the path of rational thinking. Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological
By habitually using reasoning in everyday life not just in science we develop our individual character. Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological
To act ethically, therefore, is to engage our capacity to reason as we develop good character. That is the highest form of happiness
Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological In order to become happy we develop habits that represent the best of what it means to be human. Aristotle calls these excellences virtues.
www.telp.com/ art/atc/atc1b.htm Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological We become virtuous by choosing continually to do virtuous things, so
that these actions become ingrained in us like a habit. Three Approaches to Ethics: Teleological Aristotle said that we should avoid excess and seek moderation.
This is the doctrine of the mean Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Deontology comes from the Greek words meaning the study of duty
http://www.lapraik.com/cordeaux/Judaism/jewish_clipart2.htm Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Best represented by Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 German
magazine.uchicago.edu/. ../punchline.html Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Kant saw two types of ways of how we come to know things: Theoretical Reason
and Practical Reason Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Theoretical Reason How we come to know how laws of nature govern human
behaviour Freedom of choice not an issue Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Practical Reason Helps us understand how people make
choices People act on conscious choice based on principles Understand what we ought to do Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological
Drinking and Driving Theoretical Reason tells us the effect of alcohol consumption on the body Practical Reason tells us that we ought not to drink and drive
Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Kant: the good is the aim of moral life Concerned with moving toward practical certainty in ethics
Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological There are three areas of interest which we need to base our search for the supreme good: God
Freedom Immortality Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological God Because humans cannot achieve supreme good out of
their own power, we need God Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Freedom If humans are to achieve the supreme good then they must
be able to choose it Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Immortality Achieving the supreme good is an immense task, impossible to achieve
in this life In the life beyond we can achieve the supreme good. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological The good will Ethics discovered in
an individuals inner convictions and autonomy It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world which can be taken as good without qualification, except a
good will.-Kant Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological The good will is the will to do our duty for no other reason than it is our duty.
Impulses and desires draw us away from our duty. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Human Action is morally good when it is done
for the sake of duty. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Human Action is morally good when it is done for the sake of duty:
Example: You may not want to go to your great aunts funeral, but it is your duty. You chose to go to honour your family. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Human Action is
morally good when it is done for the sake of duty: Therefore: Moral worth is not measured by our inclinations but by the motive behind them It is not a language of desires but of ought.
Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Maxims Duty is determined by the principles (maxims) according to which we act An ethical maxim is one in which every ethical
person would necessarily act if reason would necessarily act if reason were fully in charge of his or her actions. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological Maxims
Kants most famous maxim: I should act in a way that I would want everyone else in the world to act. Three Approaches to Ethics: Deontological
Another maxim: Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an
end. Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995) Representative philosopher of relational ethics
Jewish Born in Lithuania At 17 moved to France Lost much of his family in the Holocaust Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational Emmanuel Levinas
(1905-1995) Perceived a contrast between Jewish beliefs and Western philosophy Objected to Western philosophical tendency to see being as a unity and differences as not essential
Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational Emmanuel Levinas (19051995) Much respected by Pope John Paul II Used similar ideas in The New Millennium Pope invited Levinas to
several summer conferences Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Good is Infinite The search for the Good is the central question of philosophy for Levinas.
This is the search for God. Individuals are unique and this uniqueness is the interest of the Good Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational These unique things
are traces of God We do not encounter God directly, but rather the trace of God. Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Trace of Good
In this picture, God is like the sun. We see traces of the sun in the picture. But we only see a glimpse of the grandeur The sun is beyond the point of vision God is always a step ahead of us
Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Face as Trace of God The human face reveals the encounter with the human face, particularly the eyes A deep encounter with
another person reveals a trace of God. Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Face as Trace of God When you encounter the other in this way, you cannot escape his or her
uniqueness The face has an authority because it is a trace of the divinity. Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Face as Ethical The encountered other is
the stranger whom the scriptures tell us to love. When I encounter suffering in the face of the other I am bound to act. That face arouses the goodness within Three Approaches to Ethics:
Relational The Face as Ethical The face suggests that there is another order of existencethe order of an incredible good calling us to be responsible for the other Here the self-centred self
is called into question. Here the other rules Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational The Face as Ethical The face makes us responsible The Search for the Good
leads to our neighbour God touches us through the face of the Other Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational: Similarities People are fundamentally ethical All three ethical stances search for the Good All three approaches touch on an aspect of
Christian ethics Three Approaches to Ethics: Relational: Distinguishing Features Teleological: Purpose Driven Deontological: Duty Driven Relational: Relationship Driven Chapter 2
You are what you do You are what you do Freedom: The amazing capacity to act Humans have the capacity to act We possess the power to do things that sets us apart from animals This human capacity to be an agent is the topic of this chapter
and the next You are what you do An agent is a person who acts freely and knowingly, who chooses to do or not do something; a person who is accountable for his or her actions or omissions You are what you do
Human freedom What does it mean to be free? Freedom characterizes properly human acts. It makes the human being responsible for acts of which he or she is the voluntary agent Freedom is the power to act or not to act, and so to perform deliberate acts of ones own. Freedom attains perfection in its acts when directed towards God, the sovereign Good You are what you do
Naturalism Understands the the material universe as a unified system. In it, everything is shaped completely by physical, biological, psychological, social and environmental processes. As a part of the evolutionary process, humans, this theory holds, are no more than a part of the material universe. You are what you do The theory of naturalism makes a direct assault on human
freedom. If DNA defines who you are, then your genes rule supreme. Your genes determine who you are and what you can be. Your promises and commitments then do not come from motives or intentions, but from a genetic predisposition. Freedom is a delusion You are what you do Naturalism denies the possibility of ethics and morality.
How can you be responsible for your actions if what you do is a natural physical process over which you have no control and if control is just another facet of your neural organization? You are what you do Religious determinism Some churches have denied human freedom. They have done so based on a belief in God whose knowledge and will have predetermined not only the course of the world and its history, but also each action and deed of every individual.
According to John Calvin freedom and ethics have no place in the doctrine of predestination. The Catholic position disagrees with Calvin. Catholic teaching maintains that human freedom and Gods providence do not conflict You are what you do Social determinism Suggests that your behaviour is determined not so much by your physical state a by the influences of others upon you: your parents or culture; your psychological state
To a social determinist, the past, your past, determines who you are. Your behaviour is explained by social factors, not be your decisions. I did this because I was abused as a child. - if your actions are determined entirely by you past, how can you be responsible for them? You are what you do You are what you do
You are what you do You are what you do You are what you do You are what you do
You are what you do You are what you do You are what you do You are what you do You are what you do
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