Philip II of Spain Rule: 1556-1598 Territories included: Iberian Peninsula, Italy, Netherlands Squelch (Objective): Protestants and Muslims Battle of Lepanto, 1571 defeat Ottoman Turks ( England signs mutual defense pact with France) Interference: French monarch succession/French civil wars Civil/cold relations with England, tensions increase due to English support of the Dutch/ English pirates
Elizabeth I of England Poor compared with Spain Small player in European affairs Elizabeth unified the people by: Parliament: government open to most Englishmen, elevates commoners= gentry class Encourages patriotism= common enemy, Spain Support Protestant efforts abroad/ encouraged English sailors to explore/ raid Spanish ships
Executed Mary, Queen of Scots Conspired against Elizabeth Elizabeth was conflicted over execution Kill an anointed Queen? Dutch Revolt Philip reorganizes Catholic Church in the Netherlands, gives him more power Inquisition against the Calvinists Jesuits search for heretics
William of Orange- defends people against Philips Inquisition Son, Maurice of Nassau unites many of the Dutch provinces United Provinces 1579: provinces, fight back/ Spanish unable to break Truce reached in 1609- 20 years The Armada Philip- enraged by English interference in the Netherlands (helping the
Protestants) Armada: Huge fleet, deliver Spanish army to invade England English able to match Spain in the Channel- many Spanish ships lost Remaining fleet forced to flee- wind, storms, and English ships that gave chase Result in less than half of the Armada returning home Civil War in France
Calvinists in France= Huguenots Gaining popularity Guises Powerful noble family, leadership of the Catholics Bourbons Powerful noble family, leadership of the Huguenots (political rather than purely religious) Civil War in France
Henry II dies in 1559- Three sons take over throne/ each ineffectual (30 years) Catherine de Medici- attempts to maintain control of the throne/sons, switches sides depending on who has more power St. Bartholomews Day Massacre 1572: 20,000 Huguenots killed War breaks out 1562 Armanda defeat effects war in France Philip can no longer help the Duke of Guise and the Catholics
Civil War in France Duke of Guise is assassinated/ Catholics unable to maintain organization Henry of Navarre, inherits throne to become Henry IV of France (r. 1589-1610) Converts to Catholicism to bring peace to France Edict of Nantes
Toleration of Huguenots Protected rights/ open public office Sec I Evaluate the relative weight of religious and political factors underlying the wars between the 1560s-1640s What problems faced Philip II? The Wars of Religion
(1560s1648) Civil War In France (1562-1598) The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End Henri II was the last powerful Valois Three weak sons followed:
Francis II Charles IX Henri III Catherine de Medici controlled the sons:
Was mother to the boys Played both sides in the civil war Catherine de Medici Francis II & His Wife, Mary Stuart The French Civil War There were two sides:
Guise family led Catholics in North Bourbon family led Huguenots in South Fighting for the royal inheritance Catherine supported the Guises in the first phase. St. Bartholomews Day Massacre August 24, 1572 20,000 Huguenots were killed Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre The French Civil War Catherine started supporting the Bourbons. Catholic League CIVIL
WAR Protestant Union Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France. Effects of Civil War:
France was left divided by religion Royal power had weakened Valois family now replaced by Bourbons Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris Peter Paul Reubens Henry IV of France Ended Spanish interference in France Converted to Catholicism :
Did this to compromise and make peace Paris is worth a mass. This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious
considerations] Fighting for the royal inheritance Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598: Granted religious rights to Huguenots Did not grant religious freedom for all
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Sec II In what ways does the Thirty Years War reflect the mixture of politics and religion in the war during this period? What was the significance of the Peace of Westphalia?
16181648 Characteristics of the Thirty Years War The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. Spain, France, Sweden and Denmark all interested in acquiring Habsburg territory in the HRE At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end it was Habsburg power that
was threatened. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Peace of Augsburg (1555) Ended war between Lutherans/ Catholics in Ger. (HRE Charles V) 224 German States- practice religion chosen by ruler Lutherans living under a Catholic princebishopric could continue to practice Lutheranism *Calvinism complicates this treaty*
(1st) The Bohemian Phase: Ferdinand II1618-1622 (HRE) inherited Bohemia thru his cousin Emperor Mathias. The Bohemians hated him. Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants. Defenestration of Prague May, 1618
The Bohemian Phase: 1618- 1622 Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor. borrowed an army from Maxmilian of
Bavaria. Mostly Catholic/Imperial victories Bohemian lose Leading rebels executed Frederick II loses his lands Max gets as reward Spanish get other The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others. Bohemian
Phase (2nd) Phase: 1621-1630 Truce between Spanish and Dutch exp. 1621 War resumes Spanish send army to help HRE crush Protestant forces England absolves itself to involvement
The Danish Phase: 1625-1629 Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance. Tried to crush Protestants in northern Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein (Bohemian noble) for the army. Wallenstein defeated Protestants in north.
Edict of Restitution (1629): Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552. Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights. German princes feared Ferdinand He fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them.
Danish Phase Albrecht von Wallenstei n (3rd )The Swedish Phase: 1630- 1635
War becomes PURELY political France & Sweden now get involved. Both want to stop Habsburg power. Sweden led the charge. France provided support. Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.
Feared Habsburg invasion of Sweden/ disgust with treatment of Protestants Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein. Swedish advance was stopped. German princes still feared Ferdinand II.
Swedish Phase Gustavus Adolphus (4th) The French Phase: 1648 1635- France & Sweden switched roles.
Protestants in Ger. Principalities raise new armies Ferdinand makes deal with Ger. Protest/ fight united against outsiders Lift Edict of Restitution/amnesty to all except Frederick II/ few key Bohemian leaders . (4th) The French Phase: 1635-1648
All countries in Europe now participated. Fighting continued in the Spanish Netherlands until 1658c, the Baltic region until 1661 (between Russia, Poland, Sweden and Denmark This phase was most destructive!
German towns decimated. Agriculture collapsed famine resulted. 8 million dead 1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648] Caused massive inflation. Loss of German Lives in 30
Years War The Peace of Westphalia Political Provisions: (1648)
Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor. The United Provinces [Dutch Netherlands.] became officially independent so. part remained a Spanish possession. France rcvd. most of the German-speaking province of Alsace. Sweden got lands in No. Germany on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts.
Switzerland became totally independent of the HRE Swiss Confederation. Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HRE. Brandenburg got important territories. on No. Sea & in central Germany. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) Religious Provisions: Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the
Peace of Augsburg. The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship. Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
1688-1700 ALL parties involved participated in negotiations Emergence of a state system/ rearrangement of European map (looks modern!) Principle beneficiaries were France (DOMINATE PLAYER) and Sweden Conflict shifts away from religion/ willing to fight over economic, territorial or political reasons Economic prosperity returns to the northern countries faster ( England/ Netherlands) Loser- House of Habsburg
Principality Autonomy EST- 1657 HRE Leopold I elected on 2 conditions Would not give help to his relative, King of Spain HRE would not interfere in the principalities affairs/authority What were the longrange effects of the Thirty
Years War? Sec. III What changes in military equipment, tactics, and organization took place in the 16th and 17th centuries? What were some of the economic, social and political consequences of these changes? Bang! Bang! Boom! Boom! Introduction of gunpowder:
Castles AND towns become heavily fortified and require intricate use of architecture and trenches to delay/avoid offensive use of explosives Cavalry charges become obsolete Spanish Square: 3000 men per square, use of gunners and pike holders Gustavus Adolphus: Use of the salvo, gunners fire at once Youre in the Army Now! Spain- 40,000 to 60,000 men
Sweden- 150,000 men France- 400,000 men New ranks/standardized uniforms Use of conscription or the Draft Impact on civilians Lower classes paid the bulk in taxes
Supplied majority of the men Conscription/Forced service For every soldier on the field, 5 additional men/boys needed for support i.e. launderer, peddlers, tradespeople Local towns provided resources for camping army
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