The Second Industiral Revolution - Mr. Darby's History

The Second Industiral Revolution - Mr. Darby's History

The Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1850 - 1900) Economics of Growth Major factors of the Second Industrial Revolution: New technologies introduced. Production in large factories Increased consumer spending

Greater availability of capital Spread of industrial production Increase in population growth New Technologies The Bessemer Process of steel making developed in 1856 made steel production easier and more cost effective. The development of electrical power (begun by Michael Faraday in 1831) to operate machinery

and electrical power grids in cities made power more accessible. The light bulb, developed by Thomas Edison in the 1870s gave impetus for electrical development. New Technologies Rudolph Diesel

The development of oil and the internal combustion engine made shipping more viable and led to the development of the automobile by Rudolph Diesel, Gottlieb Daimler, and Karl Benz. The development of the telegraph in the 1840s and 1850s and the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 made

communications faster than ever before. Business Practices Industrial organizations reached as greater scale than ever before. Cartels (large firms that dominated an industry) became commonplace

Krupp in Germany Vickers Armstrong in England Schneider-Creusot in France Modern banking structures provided capital for new business ventures. Consumer Economy With the development of mass culture, the consumer economy grew dramatically. The introduction of sophisticated advertising, department stores,

inexpensive luxuries, and personal credit allowed the middle classes to buy more than ever before. Mass circulation of newspapers and magazines added to this trend for communication and marketing. Spread of Industrialization In the middle to late 19th century, industrialization spread and increased pace in France, Germany, Italy, the Low

Countries, the United States, and Russia. Continental Europe and the United States had advantages in development due to the fact they were new industrial powers, their technology was new, were the British technology was older and business owners were weary to replace it. The Long Depression Despite the introduction of new technologies, the growth of consumer culture, and the gospel of free trade, Europe and much of the

world faced economic depression from the 1870s to 1896. Prices, profits, and interest rates fell. Growth in one sector led to decline in several others. Governments reverted to protectionist policies and imperialism to help stimulate their economies. Agriculture Despite higher demand for food, agricultural populations across the continent continued to decline.

The introduction of chemical fertilizers, machinery, and easier transportation led to increased competition and specialization (Danish cheese, French wine, etc.) Global agricultural trade led to greater interdependence, cheaper prices, and greater selection of goods. Demographic Changes The population of Europe nearly doubled in the period from 1865 to 1914.

This occurred during a major demographic transition (falling birth and death rates). This led to smaller families (fewer children born if more are going to survive) and an older population. This was largely due to improved sanitation and medical care (eliminating diseases such as typhus and cholera), and increased nutrition.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • How to Write a Yearbook Feature There is

    How to Write a Yearbook Feature There is

    How to Write a Yearbook Feature There is no substitute for good writing. It flows. It glows. It lives
  • Branding in the Digital Age - Laerdal Medical

    Branding in the Digital Age - Laerdal Medical

    "Statement of cognitive (knowledge), affective (attitude), and/or psychomotor (skills) goal(s)" (The International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning [INACSL] Board of Directors, 2011a, p.
  • Camp Features *Basic skills progressions Passing Hitting Setting

    Camp Features *Basic skills progressions Passing Hitting Setting

    Freshmen Coach Brittany Hammond The remainder of coaching staff includes former girls team members from Worthington Kilbourne High School Camp Benefits *Work with future teammates *Work with future coaches *Improve individual volleyball skills *Improve understanding of game concepts *HAVE FUN...
  • Overview of Emerging issues for the multilateral trading ...

    Overview of Emerging issues for the multilateral trading ...

    Doha Round and regular WTO work: some issues can be addressed. Dispute settlement: may become the default option. ... Overview of Emerging issues for the multilateral trading system acp high level meeting, nairobi, kenya, 11-14 September 2012
  • Heart Wake Up

    Heart Wake Up

    Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. 13. Let us walk properly, as in the day, not in revelry and drunkenness, not in lewdness and lust, not in strife...
  • Proteiinianalyysi 5 - ekhidna.biocenter.helsinki.fi

    Proteiinianalyysi 5 - ekhidna.biocenter.helsinki.fi

    Proteiinianalyysi 5 ... Conservation of unusual structural features Clusters of conserved residues giving especially sharp signatures in enzyme active sites Sequence similarity through bridging intermediates leading to elongated clusters in protein space Functional similarities conserved ...
  • EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENTS - New Jersey

    EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENTS - New Jersey

    EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENTS. Session Objectives. ... Write a one minute essay on what you've learned. Be sure to include how the politics, places of interest and headlines are impacting the games. Monitoring and Adjusting Instruction. Diagnostic Assessment.
  • Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases: STD 101 for Clinicians

    Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases: STD 101 for Clinicians

    Need for safety-net services. Uninsured. Youth, women at risk, men at risk, pregnant. 2013 = 7,800,000. Those seeking "confidential" services. Those seeking convenient services - same day