The Renaissance Ca. 1350-1550 Opening Question Franois Rabelais (c. 1494-1553) French Renaissance humanist and author: Out of the thick Gothic night, our eyes were awakened to the glorious light of the sun. 1. What did Rabelais mean? 2. Why did he believe this? 3. To what extent was he correct? Themes of the
Renaissance Intellectual history? Cultural history? Political history? Diplomatic history? Social history? Economic history? What is the Renaissance? What does Renaissance mean? French for rebirth. What was reborn? What was dead? First used in the mid-16th century in reference to medieval painters If rebirth, why associated with classical Greece & Rome? Was To
there truly a clear, obvious break from the medieval? what does the term apply? When & how? Styles New An Jacob in painting & sculpture? literary forms? original lifestyle? Burckhart Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) Counter-arguments? Traditional Themes of the Renaissance
Humanism Secularism Individualism Rationalism Virtu (Civic Responsibility) What is true? Time of transition: 1. Increased national consciousness 2. Increased political centralization 3. Urbanizing economy: Capitalism and commerce
4. Increased lay & secular control of thought, culture, and even religion Essential step toward Reformations Rough chronology of the Renaissance Up to 1370, individual geniuses emerge, especially in Italy, but no clear movement To 1470s, the Florentine period: Great things happen in Florence By 1450s: Renaissance received in Rome, Milan, and Venice
After Alps 1500, Renaissance crosses Italian Renaissance Why Italy? Higher level of literacy and lay education Crossroads of trade & cultural exchange Greater wealth = patronage Historic roots in antiquity Less bound to feudal/chivalric values City-states = Urban culture On which classes did the Renaissance have the greatest effect? Why Italy? 1. Geography 2. Roman Law
3. Rich in agriculture and trade 4. Banking finances trade, facilitates accumulation of capital 5. Trade w. East 6. Social influences? Italian city-states Many technically constitutional republics, actually oligarchies Development of bureaucracies
Military ethos dominates courts Larger city states were very militarily aggressive Despotic rule (outside Venice) Venice: Doge and Senate Papal States
Tuscan emerges as Italian countrly language Medici rulers support secular learning Luxury goods and crafts lead to artistic tradition Relatively high educational levels Rule by merchants/guilds Babylonian Captivity? Visconti/Sforza in Milan De Medici in Florence
Pope a temporal prince Florence becomes dominant Cosimo (r. 1434-1464) Lorenzo the Magnificent (r. 1478-1492) Podesta and condottieri Four major social classes Old rich (old nobles and merchants)
New rich (capitalists and bankers) Middle burghers (small business & guilds) The little people Perpetual strife and internal warfare What is humanism? Humanism Humanism Very vague term Many interpretations: What are they?
1. Burckhardt: Birth of modernity, secular, stress on individualism, secular values 2. Champions of Catholic Christianity vs. Aristotelian scholasticism 3. Scholarship that promotes civic responsibility & personal liberty = Civic Humanism 4. Simply an educational program based on rhetoric and sound scholarship Characteristics of Humanist Scholarship Critical study of classics and Church fathers in original languages (Greek & Latin) Study of the liberal arts Grammar Rhetoric
Poetry History Politics Moral Philosophy Study of primary sources instead of received wisdom Why important? What are the effects? Key early Italian humanist thinkers
*Petrarch (1304-1374) Father of humanism, sonnets to Laura *Dante (Divine Comedy), Boccaccio (Decameron) (Both medieval) Vernacular literature *Christine de Pisan (1364-1430) Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)
Disproval of Donation of Canstantine Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Founds Florentine Platonic Academy Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486) Castiglione (1478-1529) Book of the Courtier Renaissance Society Nobles: Baldassare: Book of the Courtier
Show achievements and grace Sets standards for centuries Peasants (85-90% of population): Serfdom disappears in Western Europe Townspeople Patricians Burghers Workers
Family life: Arranged marriagesdowries Very low wages Father-centered family Women: Perhaps even more repressed, few rights. Why? What was their one place to have social significance? Still, rule within many homes. The Renaissance and Discovery NORTHERN RENAISSANCE, DISCOVERY, AND ART
Italian Diplomacy & External Wars in the High Renaissance Late 1400s = Economic & political decline = French & Spanish dominance of peninsula Fall of Constantinople Portuguese fleets & Atlantic trade Increased competition Peace of Lodi (1454)
French, Spanish, German conflict over Italy First French invasion (1494) on Ludovicos request Charles VIII plummets through peninsula toward Naples Spanish/HRE intervene Florence 1494-1498: Savanarola (14521498) sets up religious dictatorship opposing Medici, French, Popes Excommunicated, executed
Medicis returned Louis XII invades with Pope Alexander VIs support Wars in Italy until 1559 Emperor Charles V sacks Rome in 1527 HRE dominates most of peninsula Pope depends on HRE for defense against Turks Results?
End of High Renaissance Division of Italy Increasing secular/military involvement of popes (Esp. Alexander VI (Borgia) and Julius II ) Machiavelli Florentine diplomat in France and Rome Believed Italians lacked civic virtue The Prince (1513)
Pragmatic guide to obtaining & keeping power. Strong prince could end instability, bring moral regeneration Faith in political leadership Governments goal = Stability Not guide to dictatorship; merely observation. Reasons of state justification for political action Realpolitik
The New Monarchies MONARCHY STRENGTHENS IN ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND SPAIN The New Monarchies After 1450 Shift from feudal to unified national monarchies Royal burghers become royal advisors Towns ally with king. Why? Representative assemblies begin to emerge England: Parliament
France: Estates General Spain: Cortes New states = Sovereign Taxes, war-making, law enforcement become NATIONAL Factors leading to monarchical dominance Appointments & bureaucracies Standing national, more professional, armies Raising money:
Rent from domains National taxes on food, clothing Direct taxes on peasants Sale of offices Borrowing from Italian, German bankers New Monarchy: France Charles VII (r. 1422-1461) Exceptional advisors
Professionalization of the army: 100 Years War Defeat of Burgundy & Charles the Bold Jacques Coeur Develops strong army Diplomatic corps National administration Louis XI (r. 1461-1483)
Makes France a great power Final defeat of England and elimination of Burgundy 2x size of France Harnesses nobility Expands trade & industry New Monarchies: Spain Isabella of Castile (r. 1474-1504) & Ferdinand of Aragon (14791516): Marry in 1469 In 1492: Complete reconquista of Moors in Grenada
Force conversions or exile of Jews and Muslims Later conquer Naples (1504) and Navarre (1512) secure borders Nobilitys power reduced Town league (hermandad) supports king Townspeople replace nobility in administration Church power reduced Appointment of higher clergy
Control Inquisition (Torquemada) Cardinal Cisneros: Solidifies bond to Catholic Church Marriage alliances: Joanna the Mad to Philp of Habsburg (son=HRE Charles I) Catherine of Aragon (eventually) to Henry VIII New monarchies: England War of the Roses (1455-1485) Civil war between houses of York (White) and Lancaster (Red)
Richard III (Edward IVs brother York) seizes throne, murders princes Support wells for Henry Tudor (Lancaster) Henry wins at Bosworth Field (1485) Henry VII (r. 1485-1509) Begins Tudor dynasty Establishes power over nobility Court of Star Chamber
Legal precedent used to support monarchy Take land and fortunes from nobility Become financially independent of Parliament Closing question What factors led to the strengthening of the New Monarchies? Big Questions About the Northern Renaissance 1. HOW DID THE RENAISSANCE TRANSFORM WHEN IT CROSSED THE ALPS INTO THE NORTH? 2. WHY DID NORTHERN SCHOLARS
TURN TO THE BIBLE AND THE CHURCH FATHERS RATHER THAN GREECE AND ROME? Northern Renaissance Northern reformers set stage for Reformation New Learning or Italian Learning Exported by students, artists, merchants, and the Brethren of the Common Life Differences and similarities between the Renaissances Northern Europe Italy Lay culture: urban, literate,
affluent Secular culture has greater influence on intellectual life ad fontes: (back to the sources), but focus on Rome & Greece. Why? Reading and study paths to betterment. Civic duty. Man flawed, but perfectible. Stress on free will: Humans free to rise or sink. Lay culture: rural, illiterate, poor
Church more influential in intellectual life Scholasticism more deeply rooted ad fontes: But, sources tend to be the Bible & Church fathers. Why? Christian humanists also see reading and study as paths to improvement. Religious objectives. Man flawed, but perfectible. Stress on free will: Humans free
to rise or sink. Gutenberg & Printing Large increase in lay literacy Development of cheap paper replaces vellum Gutenberg prints first book with movable type: Bible (1455). By 1500 40,000 titles published By 1500: 60 presses, 200 around Europe
Mostly religious books Latin & Greek classics Results? Encourages scholarly research Increases public access to learning Spread of new religious ideas Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536) Prince of the Humanists: Leading Christian humanist
Obscure background, modest schools, Brethren of the Common Life = acquaintance with humanism Augustinian, ordained priest, itinerant scholar in Paris, Louvain, Oxford, and Italy. (Befriends Thomas More) Early work: Greek text of New Testament (both a Latin translation and a new Greek edition) Published editions of Church fathers (Jerome, Chrysostom) Philosophy of Christ: Christianity without dogma or ceremony Most known for Praise of Folly (1512) and Julius Excluded
Will battle Martin Luther on human will and perfectibility Contributes to Protestants, but does not join Sir Thomas More (14781535) Romanticized figure. Middle-class London family, good education Enters Cardinal Mortons household at 13, begins studies Studied and even taught law
Holds series of distinguished positions for Henry VIII; Lord Chancellor in 1529 Publishes Utopia (1516). Non-existent land based on natural law and simple logic. Satire of contemporary situations. Writes Henry VIIIs opposition to Luther Translates Old Testament from Hebrew, despite opposition Breaks with King Henry VIII in matter of his annulment, parting with Roman Church. Executed. A Larger World Opens: Expanded Influence of Western Civilization 1400-1550 AGE OF EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Motives in the Age of Exploration A. 1. 2. Attracted to East for silks, spices, luxury Bypass Venetian and Muslim middle-men Potential for immense profits Difficult to trade with Islamic empires 1453 Byzantine Empire fell to Turks C. Desire for wealth and adventure D. Religious zeal- save souls E. Summary Gold, God, and Glory (Guns) B. Improvements in Navigation Better maps, follow coasts at first
Improved compass Better ships- square sails and new hull design, heavy enough to carry cannon Use of astrolabe (latitude) Knowledge First of wind patterns the Portuguese (Prince Henry) then Spanish, France and England Portuguese Explorers Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
Hoped to Christianize Africa, link w. Abyssinia Established Explored Cape Slave school of navigation (1419) Madeira and Azores by 1430 Verde by (1460)Spanish settlers on all trading station begun in 1442 off of E. Africa Bartholomew Diaz- made it to Cape of Good Hope 1488 Vasco da Gama- went in search of Christians and spices- arrived in India in 1498 & returned, rich, in 1499
1510 Portuguese flags in Goa, India and Macao, China European commerce shifts from Med. to Atlantic The Spanish Believed had to be a short-cut by sailing west Columbus (Genoan) went west 1492 Arrived in Caribbean thought it was the Indies thus the West Indies Three later voyages around Caribbean
Amerigo Vespucci (1501) Coast of Brazil Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521): Circumnavigates Does East the world not complete himself; One ship returns in 1522 and West divided- Pope drew a line dividing the world between Spain and Portugal (Treaty of Tordesillas - 1494) Spain in the Americas Mexico and Central America
Aztecs conquer & dominate neighbors by 1500 Hernan Cortes Peru Incas also a harsh empire Francisco Pizarro Invades in 1531 Lands in 1519 w. 600 men Executes Atahualpa (1433)
Defeats Montezuma New Spain by 1521 Spanish internal divisions slow consolidation (1560s under royal control) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Slave Trade Portuguese- trade with Africa- To Portugal as servants than to Brazil to work on plantations Africans less susceptible to European diseases than Native Americans
But death rate was high: 13-30% just on the trip African middlemen active- depopulate entire areas of Africa- food from Americas helped increase birthrate The Church in Spanish America The conquerors wanted to convert the captured native people to Christianity and to accept European culture Some religious leaders felt the natives were being treated poorly, such as Bartolome de Las Casas Despite the opposition, the Roman Catholic Church becomes one of the
most powerful conservative forces in Latin America Columbian Exchange Diseases go both directions Syphilis from Americas to Europe Smallpox, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, malaria, typhoid, yellow and scarlet fevers, influenza, tuberculosis, and bubonic plague from Europeans Not intentional Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, donkeys, dogs, cats, and horses Old World plants to New World
Up to 90% of native population dies Animals to New World Oats, barley, wheat, and dandelions (!) New World plants to Old Maize (corn), potatoes, and sweet potatoes Latin America Exploitation Mining the Spanish conquistadores or conquerors mined gold and silver with forced labor Agriculture on haciendas, large land estates owned by the
peninsulares (people born in Spain) and creoles (people of Spanish descent born in America) used forced labor for mining, farming and ranching Plantations in the West Indies used slaves to get sugar Economic activity in government offices, the legal profession, and shipping Labor servitude in order of appearance: Encomienda a formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians Repartimiento required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises
Debt peonage Indian laborers required to purchase goods from the landowner to who they were forever indebted Black slavery Impact on Europe Increases skepticism of received wisdom. Why? Increased concern with natives welfare Beginning of globalization and European dominance Economically
Spiraling, but steady, inflation Problem = Wages lag prices New wealth = greater investment in research & expansion Some govt centralization of economic functions Breakout of capitalism What is capitalism? Growth of trade in late Middle Ages spurs development of capitalism
Banking Italy: Medici, others, set up major banking centers, branches across Italy Northern Europe: Fuggers New industries: Cloth, mining, printing, shipbuilding, arms New consumer goods: Sugar, tea, rice, tobacco, cocoa
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