The "Quiet Revolution"

The "Quiet Revolution"

The Quiet and Not So Quiet Revolution Quebec & Canada 1914 -1998 Chapter 8- Canadian Identity Quebec and Canada 1914 -1945 Each of the world wars had brought with it domestic tension related to the issue of conscription. There had been passionate opposition to conscription in Quebec in 1917 and again in 1944.

After 1945 Quebec-Canada relations appeared to be relatively calm but problems remained very close to the surface. The Problems of Quebec after 1945 The population of Quebec was leaving the farms for jobs in the cities. Higher educational levels tended to make Quebeckers more critical of their situation in Canada. apparent that the English speaking minority in

Quebec controlled the economy The power of Ottawa and the influence English language was growing. Maurice Duplesiss Premier from 1936 to 1939 and 1944 to 1959 strong investment in Catholic education/traditional values Anti-separatist/Quebec Nationalist Socially conservative

favoured rural communities over urban development Died in 1959 La Revolution Tranquille His death in 1959 opened the way for fundamental changes in Quebec. citizens of Quebec were not willing to accept second class status in their own province.

Maitres Chez Nous Duplessis approach to politics in Quebec was conservative People were discouraged from questioning traditional authority. He was Quebec nationalist and stressed to Ottawa that Quebeckers must be masters in their own house.

What Were the Problems? Unemployment in Quebec was the highest The English minority in Quebec were better paid and had better jobs than the French speaking population. Most top civil service positions were held by English speaking Canadians. The birth rate in Quebec was falling and new immigrants preferred to learn English. The Government of Jean Lesage

Duplessis Union National party had been in power for 18 of the previous 23 years. The Liberals under the Jean Lesage now embarked on a difficult and expensive program. Maitres Chez Nous. continues Duplessis Funeral in 1959

The Program of the Lesage Government Sought to Eliminate corruption in the Government of Quebec. Improve public services particularly, transportation , health care and education. Improve wages and pension benefits for the citizens of Quebec. Develop new industries and to

access the natural resources of the province. Daniel Johnson and the Return of Union Nationale Lesage and his government were defeated in 1966. Daniel Johnson, the new Premier, did not abandon the goals of the Quiet Revolution.

Johnsons approach was to establish closer ties with France. Click here to see the spee ch (CBC Archives) The fear in Ottawa was underscored by the visit of Charles de Gaulle and his Vive le

Quebec Libre! speech in 1967. Violence in Quebec By 1963 there was a growing trend among some small radical groups in Quebec to arm themselves. Bombs were planted and military supplies stolen.

Most FrenchCanadians opposed these lawless acts but Ottawa felt that it had to respond. Ottawa Responds to Nationalism in Quebec All the provinces were granted greater autonomy and more money to run

provincial programs. The new Canadian flag was adopted in 1965 replacing the old Red Ensign. The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was established in 1963 to study French language and culture in Canada. The Commission Reports Canada was to be officially bilingual with English

and French the official languages of Parliament and the federal courts. Government services should support minority language groups in all provinces. More French-Canadians should be employed in the federal civil service. French was to be the primary language of business and government in Quebec. Trudeau and Quebec In 1968 Pierre Trudeau became the Prime Minister

of Canada. He was a French-Canadian federalist with strong views on Canadian unity. Mr. Trudeau rejected separatism and focused on bilingualism in government. Problems With Bilingualism It was difficult for older unilingual Canadians to learn a new language.

English Canadians began to feel that the French language was being given an unfair degree of support and a backlash developed. Even among some French-Canadians there was opposition to the extent of the effort to encourage the use of French in English Canada. Robert Bourassa Takes Power in Quebec 1970 Robert Bourassa believed that Quebec's place was in Canada.

In the first year of his government he was forced to deal with a radical separatist group the FLQ. The Front de Liberation Quebecois wanted the independence of Quebec and were prepared to use violence to achieve this end. The October Crisis 1970

After seven years of bombings and other acts of violence the FLQ embarked on one last desperate act of defiance. On October 5, 1970 they kidnapped James Cross the British Trade Commissioner to Canada. This was followed by a separate kidnapping of the Quebec Minister of Labour - Pierre Laporte. The October Crisis II

Click here for Trudeaus Watch me speech, from the CBC Archives. The FLQ issued a list of demands which included the release from prison of several members of their group. On October 16, 1970 Prime Minister Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act. This act gave the government

special powers of arrest and had been requested by both the government of Quebec and the city of Montreal. The October Crisis III Nearly 500 Quebeckers were arrested and jailed although very few were ever brought to trial. The FLQ was outlawed

and the Canadian Armed Forces patrolled the streets of Montreal and Quebec City. Pierre Laporte was murdered but James Cross was eventually released. Laportes body found, from CBC Archives. Discussion/

Review Questions 1. What were some of the problems facing Quebec from 1945 -1970? 2. How important is a flag in asserting identity? Should it be a criminal act to show disrespect to a flag? 3. How do you feel about Trudeaus use of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis? Was he justified in suspending civil liberties? In what if any circumstances should this action be allowed? Rene Levesque and the Parti Quebecois

Most Quebecois were opposed to violence and terrorism but at the same time many supported a separate Quebec. This gave rise to a new separatist political party the Parti Quebecois - led by Rene Levesque. Levesque led his party to victory in the provincial election of 1976.

The Quebec Referendum 1980 The Parti Quebecois organized a referendum on sovereignty-association for May 20, 1980. independence from Canada but close economic ties. The campaign was very passionate and divisive. The Quebec Referendum II Federal politicians, like Pierre Trudeau,

supported the no side in Quebec. The actual referendum question was complex and did not attract the support the Government of Quebec wished. 82% of the population turned out to vote and 59% rejected the proposal. "We will immediately take action to renew the Constitution and we will not stop until we have done that Trudeau promises to amend the

Constitution if Quebec votes no The Quebec Referendum III The Winds of Change The 1980 referendum convinced Pierre Trudeau that constitutional change was necessary. The Liberal government undertook the difficult task of patriating the

constitution. This was achieved in 1982 but without the approval of Quebec. The Kitchen Compromise Prime Minister meets with 9/10 premiers in 1981 to try and amend the Constitution (in a kitchen) Agreement: Notwithstanding Clause - Escape clause of the charter Amending Formula: needs 7/10 provinces making up

50 % of the population. This means that if Ontario is included Quebec can be excluded Rene Levesque was at a different hotel and did not agree Felt betrayed but tensions seemed to have eased Brian Mulroney re-opens the debate in 1984 Leader of progressive Conservatives Brian Mulroney reopens the debate and appeals to separatists during election campaign Once elected wants Quebec to sign the Constitution

Other provinces have their own demands especially Alberta and Newfoundland who want control of their own industry Robert Bourassas Demands for Quebec - 1987 Distinct society status. A veto for Quebec on any future constitutional amendments. More power over

immigration to Quebec. The right to nominate Supreme Court judges. Distinct Society What did this term mean? Was Quebec to be considered different or special? If Quebec was to be special did this mean that additional powers would be given to the Quebec government?

The Meech Lake Accord 1987 an effort to complete the constitutional process and meet Quebecs demands: 1. The confirmation of distinct society status for Quebec in order to bring the province into the constitution. 2. The right to allow provinces to nominate Supreme Court judges. The accord was not ratified by all ten provinces and failed. The Failure of the Meech

Lake Accord This accord was acceptable in Quebec but eventually failed in Manitoba and Newfoundland. It was seen in Quebec as a rejection by the rest of Canada. The separatist movement in Quebec was revived by the emotion surrounding the failure of Meech. The Bloc Quebecois The failure of the Meech Lake Accord resulted in

the formation of a new federal political party theBloc Quebecois. This party attracted support only in Quebec but won enough seats in 1993 to become the official opposition party in Ottawa. The first leader of the Bloc was Lucien Bouchard. The Charlottetown Accord

1992 This was the second attempt to amend the constitution. It promised 1. Distinct society status for Quebec. 2. Aboriginal self-government. 3. Senate reform. It failed to pass a national referendum in October 1992 when a large majority Canadians voted no. The 1995 Quebec Referendum In 1995 the people of Quebec voted on the

question of sovereignty. Jacques Parizeau, the premier, led the Yes but was defeated by a narrow margin. The No side won by 51 per cent to 49 percent. There was shock in the rest of Canada but no immediate solution.

Parizeaus Money & the Ethnic Vote speech, from the CBC Archives. The Supreme Court Ruling 20 August 1998 The federal government asked the Supreme Court three questions in 1996. 1. Can Quebec secede unilaterally from Canada under the constitution?

2. Does it have the right to secede unilaterally under international law? Secede: withdraw from a federal union Unilaterally: done by only group without the support of others 3. If there is a conflict between Canadian and international law, which takes precedence?

The Constitutional Right to Secede (Question 1) The Constitution (guarantees) order and stability, and accordingly secession of a province under the Constitution could not be achieved unilaterally Negotiation with the other provinces within the terms of the constitution would be required for Quebec to secede. International Law and the Right

to Secede (Question 2) The court decided that the right to secede exists but not at the expense of the stability and integrity of Canada. Only if a people were colonized or oppressed would the court consider unilateral secession acceptable. does not apply to Quebec. General Conclusions of the Supreme Court (Question 3) The court ruled that there was no conflict between

Canadian and International law. The Supreme Courts ruling was open to interpretation by both sides but offered little comfort to the separatist movement in Quebec. Quebec can hold another referendum on a clear question and if it wins this referendum Canada and Quebec must negotiate the terms of secession. Jean Chretiens Clarity Bill Problems Associated with Quebec Separation What happens to the large French

speaking population outside of Quebec? What happens to the anglophone population inside of Quebec? How do we divide the economic resources and the national debt of the country? How does the rest of Canada remain united? Recent Changes in Quebec Some people think that the tide has

turned against the Separatists. Immigration is reducing the influence of pur laine Quebecers the chief supporters of separation. Summary Constitutional debate in Canada continues and the question of national unity remains an

unsolved problem. Quebec remains outside of the Canadian Constitution. The PQ government in Quebec does not intend to hold another referendum until they are assured of winning conditions. At the moment these conditions do not exist. Chapter 8 The Canadian Identity- Activities: Do Activity Sheet 8-1 Know time-line on page 191 Do Activities:

-Page -Page -Page -Page -Page 194:1-5 200:1-7 204:1-5 206:1-5 216:1-6

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