The Open Society and Education in Macau

The Open Society and Education in Macau

THE NATURE OF ENQUIRY: SETTING THE FIELD LOUIS COHEN, LAWRENCE MANION AND KEITH MORRISON STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER

The search for truth

Two conceptions of social reality Positivism The assumptions, nature and tools of science The scientific method Criticisms of positivism and the scientific method Post-positivism Naturalistic approaches Normative and interpretive paradigms Phenomenology, ethnomethodology, symbolic interactionism,

constructionism Criticisms of naturalistic and interpretive approaches Post-positivism, postmodernism and post-structuralism Complexity theory PARADIGMS OF SOCIAL RESEARCH POSITIVISM (MACRO)

POSITIVIST DESIGN IDENTIFY TOPIC REVIEW PREVIOUS LITERATURE LOOK FOR ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS

FORMULATE HYPOTHESIS DESIGN RESEARCH COLLECT DATA START PROCESS AGAIN

NO ANALYSE DATA YES REPORT FINDINGS POSITIVIST METHODS

POST-POSITIVISM Our knowledge of the world is not absolute but partial, conjectural, falsifiable, challengeable, provisional, probabilistic and changing. There is no absolute truth, but probabilistic knowledge only. No once-and-for-all foundational knowledge and grand narratives of a singular objective reality, discoverable through empiricism, positivism, behaviourism and rationalism. Tentative speculation in which multiple perspectives, claims and

warrants are brought forward by the researcher. No theory-free observations; different theories can support specific observations/facts. Social facts, ways of thinking and observing, are social constructions rather than objectively and universally true. The values, biographies, perceptions, theories, environment and existing knowledge of researchers influence what is being observed. 2018 Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison; individual chapters, the contributors POST-POSITIVISM

Facts and observations are theory-laden and value-laden. The separation of fact and value in positivism is unsustainable. Facts and theories are fallible. There exists an objective reality, but there is a pluralist view of multiple, coexisting realities rather than a single reality. The scientific method holds, but strong theories are contingent on their ability to withstand severe tests of their falsifiability.

Discoveries are subject to future falsification in the light of new evidence. 2018 Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison; individual chapters, the contributors NATURALISTIC APPROACHES INTERPRETIVE/ETHNOGRAPHIC IDENTIFY TOPIC LITERATURE REVIEW

RESEARCH DESIGN DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS ELABORATION OF CONCEPTS/THEORIES REPORT OF FINDINGS NATURALISTIC METHODS

POSITIVIST APPROACHES NUMBERS, MEASUREMENT SURVEY, EXPERIMENT ETHNOGRAPHY

NATURALISTIC APPROACHES INTERVIEW OBSERVATION CASE STUDY ACTION RESEARCH POST-POSITIVISM, POSTMODERNISM,

POST-STRUCTURALISM 2018 Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison; individual chapters, the contributors 2018 Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison; individual chapters, the contributors

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