Gram Positive Bacteria Grouped based on C + G ratio (nitrogen bases cytosine and guanine) Divided into 2 Phyla Firmicutes (low C + G ) Actinobacteria (High C + G) Firmicutes Low G + C ratio Includes endospore forming and wall-less bacteria
enterotoxin - induces vomiting exfolatin toxin scalded skin syndrome Folliculitis Impetigo MRSA and VRSA Lactobacillales Commercially important Aerotolerant or facultative anaerobes
Lactobacillus Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenting rod common in vagina, intestinal tract, and oral cavity used in production of pickles, buttermilk, and yogurt Streptococcus chains of cocci
Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenter Pathogenic strains produce multiple extra-cellular enzymes and toxins Responsible for more illnesses and a greater variety of diseases than any other group of bacteria Beta-hemolytic streptococci S. pyogenes
Impetigo, strep throat, scarlet fever, necrotizing fascitis Alpha-hemolytic streptococci S. pneumoniae Pneumonia, ear infections, sinusitis, meningitis S. mutans
May be responsible for stillbirths and birth defects Mollicutes (mycoplasmas) Mycoplasmatales
Wall-less, highly pleomorphic Very small (0.1 - 0.24 m) May produce filaments Degenerative evolution Mycoplasma M. pneumoniae walking pneumonia
Spiroplasma Corkscrew morphology plant pathogen and parasite of plant feeding insects Actinobacteria High G + C
Mycobacterium acid fast; aerobic rods; filamentous growth non-endospore former; mycolic acid M. tuberculosis tuberculosis M. leprae - leprosy Corynebacterium
Club shaped, metachromatic granules C. diphtheriae diphtheria Propionibacterium propionic acid fermenter Important in swiss cheese production P. acnes commonly found on
human skin; primary cause of bacterial acne Gardnerella gram variable; highly plemorphic G. vaginalis bacterial vaginitis Actinomycetes Common soil inhabitants
Branching filaments Asexual spores Frankia, Streptomyces, Actinomyces Streptomyces most antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces species about 500 known species asexual spores (conidospores)
Produce gaseous geosmin Actinomyces facultative anaerobes mouth and throat of animals A. israelii - actinomycosis (tissue-destroying disease affecting the head, neck, or lungs) Frankia nitrogen fixing bacteria Forms root nodules with alder trees
Domain Archaea Highly diverse morphology and physiology Frequently inhabit extreme environments Three primary groups are halophiles, thermophiles and methanogens Currently classified into 3 Phyla Crenarchaeota
Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Euryarchaeota Gram+ to gram variable halophiles, methanogens and a few thermophiles Halobacteriales Obligate halophiles Bacteriorhodopsin based light capturing system
Methanobacteriales Methanogens Convert CO2, H2 and organic acids into methane Largest known group of archaea Gram +; Obligate
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