The Evolution of Management Thought

The Evolution of Management Thought

Chapter Two The Evolution of Management Thought 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1 Chapter Objectives Identify two key assumptions supporting the universal process approach, and briefly describe Henri Fayols contribution. Discuss Frederick W. Taylors approach to improving the practice of industrial management. Identify at least four key quality improvement ideas from W. Edwards Deming and the other quality advocates. Describe the general aim of the human relations movement and

explain the circumstances in which it arose. Explain the significance of applying open-system thinking to management. Explain the practical significance of adopting a contingency perspective. Describe what management by best seller involves and explain what managers can do to avoid it. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 No Universally Accepted Theory of Management There are several approaches to the theory and practice of management. The universal process approach

The operational approach The behavioral approach The systems approach The contingency approach 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3 The Universal Process Approach Universal Process Approach Assumes all organizations require the same rational management process Core management process remains the same regardless of the purpose of the organization. The management process can be reduced to a set of separate functions and related principles.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4 Henri Fayols Universal Management Process Fayol published Administration Industrielle et Gnrale in 1916. He divided a managers job into five functions: Planning Organizing Command Coordination Control

He developed 14 universal principles of management. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Henri Fayols Universal Management Process (contd) Lessons from the Universal Process Approach The management process can be separated into interdependent functions. Management is a continuous process. Management is a largely, though not an entirely, rational process. The functional approach is useful because it specifies what managers should do.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6 The Operational Approach The operational approach is a production- oriented field of management dedicated to improving efficiency and cutting waste Frederick W. Taylors Scientific Management Developing performance standards on the basis of systematic observations and experimentation Standardization Time and task study

Systematic selection and training Pay incentives 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 7 Lessons from the Operational Approach A dedication to finding a better way is still important. Using scientific management doesnt dehumanize workers. Quality advocates, inspired by the scientific approach, have been right all along about the importance of quality and continuous

improvement. The operational approach fostered the development of operations management. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8 The Behavioral Approach The Human Relations Movement An effort to make managers more sensitive to their employees needs Arose out of the influences of The threat of unionization The Hawthorne studies The philosophy of industrial humanism

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 9 The Behavioral Approach (contd) The Threat of Unionization The Wagner Act of 1935 legalized unionmanagement collective bargaining, promoting the growth of unions and union avoidance by firms. The Hawthorne Studies (1924) The studys results that productivity was strongly affected by workers attitudes turned management toward the humanistic and realistic viewpoint of the social man model. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

10 Table 2.2: McGregors Theories X and Y 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior A modern research-oriented approach seeking to discover the causes of work behavior and to develop better management techniques Lessons from the Behavioral Approach People are the key to productivity. Success depends on motivated and skilled

individuals committed to organizational objectives. Managerial sensitivity to employees is necessary to foster the cooperation needed for high productivity. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12 Has been criticized as being vague and The Systems Approach A system is a collection of parts operating interdependently to achieve a common purpose In the systems approach: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Use of Analytic (outside-in) thinking and

synthetic (inside-out) thinking Seeks to identify all parts of an organized activity and how they interact 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 General Systems Theory General Systems Theory An interdisciplinary area of study based on the assumptions that everything is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement Levels of systems Identification of systems at various levels

helps translate abstract systems theory into more concrete terms. Each system is a subsystem of the system above it. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 14 General Systems Theory (contd) Closed Versus Open Systems Closed system: A self-sufficient entity Open system: Depends on its surrounding environment for survival New Directions in Systems Thinking Organizational learning and knowledge management Organizations are living and thinking

open systems that learn and engage in complex mental processes. Chaos theory Every complex system has a life of its own, with its own rule book. Complex adaptive systems - Self-organizing 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15 Systems Approach Lessons from the Systems Approach Managers now have a greater appreciation for the importance of seeing the whole picture. Manager should not become preoccupied with one aspect of organizational management while ignoring other internal and external realities.

The systems approach tries to integrate various management theories. Criticism: Short on verifiable facts and practical advice. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16 The Contingency Approach A research effort to determine which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations. The term contingency refers to the choice of an alternative course of action. Contingency management has become synonymous with situational management.

Application of various management tools and techniques must be appropriate for the particular situation. Especially applicable in intercultural dealings. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 17 The Contingency Approach (contd) An open-system perspective How subsystems combine to interact with outside systems A practical research orientation Translating research findings into tools and situational refinements for more effective

management. A multivariate approach Many variables collectively account for variations in performance. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 18 The Contingency Approach Lessons from the Contingency Approach Approach emphasizes situational appropriateness rather than rigid adherence to universal principles Practical extension of the systems approach Criticism: Creates the impression that an organization is captive to its environment

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19 Summary Management is an interdisciplinary and international field that has evolved over the years. The operational approach has evolved from scientific management to operations management. Quality advocates teach the strategic importance of highquality goods and services. Management has turned to the human factor in the human relations movement and organizational behavior approach. Under the systems approach, modern organizations are viewed as open systems. The contingency approach stresses situational

appropriateness rather than universal principles. A quick-fix is unlikely to solve an organizations unique problems. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 20 Terms to Understand Universal process Organizational approach behavior Operational System approach

General systems Scientific theory management Closed system Operations Open system management Contingency Human relations approach movement Multivariate analysis Theory Y 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 21

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