The English Colonies - Weebly

The English Colonies - Weebly

The English Colonies Chapter 4 Section 1: The Virginia Colony In 1605 a company of English merchants asked the Crown for the right to start a new colony. King James granted their request to settle in present-day Virginia. This group of businesses was called the London Company. They were a joint stock company who knew there would be risks in starting a new colony, but if it succeeded they knew there was

a fortune to make. Jamestown On April 26, 1607 the first three ships sent by the London Company arrived in Virginia. The fleet brought 105 males to help with the work. They chose to sail up into the Chesapeake Bay and then up the James River. After going 40 miles upstream, they docked ship and began building. They named their new colony after their king. They called it Jamestown.

Problems in Jamestown Because Jamestown was a business venture, some people thought they could make their money quickly and then leave. Lazy people were a big problem in Jamestown, but that wasnt the only problem they had. Jamestown was built in the middle of a marsh full of disease infecting mosquitoes. The salty water was also unsafe to drink, and by the end of the first winter 2/3rds of the original colonists had died. Captain John Smith stepped in to maintain order among the people. He told them

that if they didnt work they didnt eat. His actions saved the colony. The Powhatan Confederacy The colonists also received help from the powerful Powhatan Confederacy. Wahunsonacock led this alliance of Algonquian Indians. At times they brought food to the colonists and taught them how to grow corn. There were times when the relationship was difficult though. The colonists would sometimes take food by force from the Indians. This led

Wahunsonacock to become reluctant toward the colonists. Survival in Jamestown In 1609 some 400 more settlers arrived in Jamestown. An injury in an accident forced John Smith to return to England. This left Jamestown without a strong leader. When he returned in 1610, he found the only 60 colonists were still alive. Because the colony was barely surviving, the London Company wasnt making any money. John Rolfe fixed that problem. He discovered that tobacco grew well in

Virginia, and since many people in England liked smoking tobacco the idea caught on. The sweet brand of tobacco saved the economic situation in Jamestown. War in Virginia John Rolfe married Pocahontas, Wahunsonacocks daughter, in 1614 Their marriage helped Jamestown form a more peaceful relationship with the Powhatan. However, in 1617, Pocahontas died in England from a disease. A year later her father died. By this time the colonists felt they didnt need the

Powhatan help. And as the tobacco market grew, so did the need for land. Problem was, the land surrounding Jamestown belonged to the Powhatan. War! In 1622, colonists killed a Powhatan leader, Opechancanough, the brother of Wahunsonacock. The Powhatan responded by attacking Jamestown. The Indians killed 350 men, women, and children. Among the dead was John Rolfe. The fighting continued for 20 more years.

With the London Company unable to maintain its interest with Jamestown, the king canceled the charter and took over control of Jamestown. Virginia was now a royal colony. Daily Life in Virginia In early Virginia most people began living on scattered farms rather than in towns. Tobacco farmers soon began building large plantations. These plantations were made possible in part by use of the headright system. Under this system, colonists who paid their own way to Virginia received 50 acres of land. A colonist could earn 50 acres more for every

additional person brought from England. Rich colonists brought relatives or servants to Virginia and gained large amounts of land. Labor in Virginia Colonists faced a hard life in Virginia. They suffered very high death rates which led to labor shortages in the colony. There was a greater need for labor in the colony. To fix this problem many workers came to the colony as indentured servants. These were servants who would sign a contract, usually 4-7 years, and could pay their own way to Virginia, could stay. Sometimes the plantation owner would also cover lodging,

clothing, and food expenses as well, but this rarely happened About 75% of those who came to Virginia, came as indentured servants. Problems with Indentured Servants Living conditions were mostly poor and sickness was common. Not all laborers that came to America were servants however, some were slaves from Africa. Slaves though were expensive; more expensive than having indentured servants at the time. The cost of slaves however began to fall, and so did the treatment for indentured servants. The benefit for the landowners was great though. They had

very little overhead when planting their crops so therefore they could keep more of their own money. These very wealthy farmers became known as planters (short for plantation owner). Bacons Rebellion During the mid-1600s many colonists grew increasingly unhappy with the conditions in the colony. By this time, government had been established in Virginia. It was called The House of Burgesses. It was an extended arm of Englands House in Burgesses in Parliament. Many poor people felt like their government wasnt listening to their complaints about the living conditions. They also complained about high taxes and

the lack of available farmland. This led to much unrest with indentured servants. The Rebellion In 1676 a group of former indentured servants attacked some peaceful American Indians. These angry colonists were led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy frontier planter and a relative of the governor. When the governor tried to stop Bacon, he and his followers attacked and burned Jamestown. This uprising was called Bacons Rebellion. After burning Jamestown, Bacon and his men hid in the woods where Bacon died from

dysentery. Later 23 of his remaining rebels were hanged for their crimes. This rebellion led the colony to depend more on slave labor than on indentured servants. Section 2: The Pilgrims Experience Religious tensions in England remained high after the Protestant Reformation. A Protestant group called the Puritans wanted to reform, or purify, the Catholic Church. They thought that the bishops and the priests had too much power over church members. The most extreme sect, or religious group,

was the Puritans. These Separatists formed their own churches and cut all ties with the Church of England. In response, church leaders began to punish Separatists. Pilgrims Flee Persecution One group of Separatists who faces such treatment became known as Pilgrims. In 1608 the Pilgrims left England to escape the persecution and moved to the Netherlands. Finding more social persecution there they decided they could not stay. They decided to go back to England and ask for permission to start their own colony. They

were granted permission to begin a colony in Virginia. The Founding of Plymouth On September 16, 1620, a ship called the Mayflower left England with more than 100 men, women, and children aboard. William Bradford was put in charge of the trip and Captain Miles Standish was put in charge of defending the colony. After two months of travel, the Pilgrims sighted land, though they realized they were too far north to be in Virginia. Because they were outside of their English charter, they had to organize their own basic laws and social rules to

govern their colony. On November 21, 1620, 41 male passengers signed a legal contract called the Mayflower Compact. It was a set of laws that protected to good of the colony. It became one of the first attempts at self-government in the English colonies. Landing at Plymouth In late 1620 the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in present-day Massachusetts. The scene was described by Bradford, We fell upon our knees and blessed the God of heaven who had brought them out of the vast and furious ocean. As they struggled to build their colony, about half died during the first winter.

Pilgrims and American Indians European fishing boats had fished the area around Plymouth for several years before the Pilgrims arrived. Unfortunately they brought diseases that killed many of the local Indians that lived in the area. The Pilgrims found many empty villages and gardens. They tried to use the gardens to plant crops. One day, however, an Indian named Samoset walked into Plymouth speaking broken English he had learned from the fishermen. He later introduced the Pilgrims to another Indian names Squanto. Squanto

Squanto had lived in Europe and spoke English He taught them how to fertilize the soil on their farms with fish remains. He also helped them establish relations with Massasoit, the chief of the local Wampanoag Indians. In return for the Indians generosity, the Pilgrims invited Chief Massasoit and 90 other Wampanoag guests to celebrate their harvest. This three day celebration set the beginnings of the holiday we call Thanksgiving.

The Pilgrim Community Life was tough however for Pilgrims. The land wasnt conducive for farming and their wasnt much game to hunt for food or trade. More people came from Europe to settle this young colony. The Pilgrim colony was different from Jamestown in many ways. One main difference was the common sight of families in Plymouth. The family was the center of religious life, health care, and community well-being. All family members worked together for the good of the colony. Womens roles consisted of cooking, sewing, weaving wool, making soap, butter, and food. Many of their roles however consisted of them working alongside

men doing much of the same work. Section 3: The New England Colonies Beginning in 1620, England began to experience an economic downturn. King Charles made it worse by raising taxes. Charles I also struck out at dissenters, people who disagree with official opinions. Most of these dissenters were Puritans who opposed his Church of England. These problems led to the Great Migration between 1630 and 1640. During these years tens of thousands of English men, women, and children emigrated to the colonies. In 1629 a group of Puritans began planning the formation of a colony in New England. King Charles allowed them to begin this new colony.

Its name would be the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1630 a fleet of ships carrying Puritan colonists left England for Massachusetts. Their main reason for starting this colony was to have the freedom to practice their religion freely. John Winthrop was chosen as governor and founder of this colony. Winthrop and the colonists believed that a covenant, or a sacred agreement with God, would help build a strong community. They began their colony successfully, and by 1630 there were 1,000 colonists living in

Massachusetts. Some notable towns they began were Salem, Mystic, Newton, Watertown, Dorchester, and Boston. Church and State in New England According to its charter company, Massachusetts was subject to English laws. However, the Massachusetts colony had more freedom than did the Virginia colony. Massachusetts created a General Court that tried to meet the general needs of the people. Politics and religion were closely related in the Puritan colony. Many government leaders were church members and ministers had a great deal of influence in decision making.

The Founding of Connecticut In 1636 minister Thomas Hooker and his followers decided to leave the Massachusetts colony to help found a new colony. In 1639 Hooker helped draft the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a set of principles that made Connecticuts government more democratic. For example, the Orders allowed men who were not church members to vote. As a result of his role, some historians have called Hooker, the father of American democracy.

Daily Life and Customs New England colonists lives centered around religion, family duties, and public work. On Sundays, Puritans often heard two sermons in which everyone in town was expected to attend. Skills varied from farmers, to fishing, trapping, blacksmithing, and carpentry. Since agriculture didnt expand in New England like it did in the south, slaves or indentured servants werent a big part of society. Marriage was also a big part of life in New England. Women were expected to fulfill three main roles as wives: Obey their husbands Have children Run the household

Husbands were expected in turn to treat their wives with the greatest love, gentleness, kindness, and tenderness. Education in New England Education was an important part of New England society, largely because mothers and fathers wanted their children to be able to read the Bible. In 1636 John Harvard and the General Court founded Harvard University. Harvard taught ministers and met the colonies need for higher education. By 1700 about 70% of the men and 45% of the women in New England could

read and write. Figures in Virginia, however, were much lower. Dissent in Massachusetts Not all Puritans shared the same religious views. Minister Roger Williams did not agree with the leadership of Massachusetts. He criticized the General Court for taking lands away from American Indians without paying them. He urged his church to separate completely from the other New England congregations. So the leadership of Massachusetts made Williams leave for fear that he would hurt the

colony. Williams took his supporters to southern New England to form a new colony called Providence. The Colony of Rhode Island In 1644 Williams received a charter to start his new colony. The Providence colony eventually became known as Rhode Island. In Providence, Williams supported the separation of the church from the politics and promoted religious tolerance for all members of the community.

In addition, he wanted to deal with the American Indians fairly. Anne Hutchinson In Boston, Anne Hutchinson angered Puritan church leaders by publicly discussing religious ideas that some leaders thought were radical. For example, Hutchinson believed that God speaks directly to people, apart from the Bible. A group of important community members often met at her home for religious discussions. Her views alarmed Puritan leaders like John Winthrop. They publicly tried her in court for

her ideas, and ruled to have her removed from the colony. With a group of followers, she helped form a new colony of Portsmouth on Aquidneck Island (Rhode Island). The Salem Witch Trials Perhaps the worst community conflicts in New England involved the witchcraft trials of the early 1690s. The largest number of trials happened in the town of Salem, Massachusetts. In Salem a group of girls had accused people of casting spells on them. Most of the accused were women. During the trials the young girls often screamed and fainted when someone accused of witchcraft entered

the room. Witnesses reported they had seen witches speaking with the devil. The court often pressured witches into confessing. In the end there were 19 people executed for their crimes. Years later some of the judges publicly apologized for their wrongs committed during he trials. Section 4: The Southern and Middle Colonies The English ship the Ark sailed into Chesapeake Bay bringing with it Catholics who had fled persecution in England. The Ark and its sister ship the Dove landed on the banks of the Potomac River where Catholics would make a cross out of a large tree to celebrate the first Catholic mass in the new colony.

Tolerant Maryland Catholics in England were not allowed to worship their religion freely. In 1632 King Charles I gave Cecilius Calvert a charter to found a new colony. Also known as Lord Baltimore, Calvert intended the colony to be a refuge for English Catholics. He named the southern colony Maryland in honor of Englands queen, Henrietta Maria. The Maryland Colony Maryland was a proprietary colony. This meant that proprietors, or owners, controlled the government. Settlers here benefited from the lessons learned from the Jamestown colony. Tobacco was a cash crop as well as corn,

cattle, and hogs. Although Catholics founded Maryland, a growing number of Protestants began moving there in the 1640s. Soon religious conflicts between the two groups arose. To reduce the tensions, Lord Baltimore presented a bill to the colonial assembly that became known as the Toleration Act of 1649. It made restricting the religious rights of Christians a crime. This Act did not put an end to conflict, but it did show that minority groups would be protected in Maryland. The Carolinas In 1663 Charles II gave much of the land between Virginia and Spanish Florida to eight of his supporters. They were called the Lords Propriety. They named the new

colony Carolina, Latin for Charles. For many years it was a single colony, but because it became too large to govern it was finally split in 1712. Most of the settlers in North Carolina were farmers who moved south out of Virginia. Colonial settlement in South Carolina began in 1670 when ships from London arrived with 100 settlers. There they founded the port of Charles Town, which was later shortened to Charleston. Agriculture in South Carolina Some colonists thought rice would grow well in South Carolinas lowland swamps.

Rice however required a lot of manual labor. For this reason slave labor grew significantly in South Carolina. By 1730 about 20,000 slaves lived in South Carolina compared to about half that of white settlers. By 1719 the British government took back control of the Carolina colonies due to a lack of control from the Lords Propriety. Diversity in New York and New Jersey The Dutch founded New Netherland on the Hudson River in 1613 as a trading post for exchanging furs with the

Iroquois. The town of New Amsterdam became the center of the fur trade in New Netherland. Generous land grants from leaders quickly brought Jews, French Huguenots, Puritans, and others to the colony. Director General Peter Stuyvesant took control of the colony beginning in 1647. He ruled the colony like a dictator. New York Colony In 1664 the English took control of New Netherland when an English fleet captured New Amsterdam without a shot. After it was captured it was renamed New York after the Duke of York, its first

director, and made it the first middle colony. Soon after the conquest in 1664, the Duke of York appointed Sir George Carteret and John Lord Berkeley proprietors of New Jersey. This land occupied the lands between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. The Pennsylvania Experiment The Society of Friends, or the Quakers, made up one of the largest religious groups in New Jersey. They were a Protestant sect founded by George Fox in the mid-1600s. Quakers believed that all people had an inner light that could help them experience God. They supported nonviolence and practiced religious

tolerance for all peoples. One proprietor, William Penn, had a dream to start a colony as a safe place for Quakers to practice their faith freely. In 1681 King Charles II granted Penn a charter to begin this colony just west of New Jersey. It was called Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Colony This middle colony grew rapidly. Penn wanted a government that was fair to all people. He even limited his own power so that the will of one man may not hinder (harm)the good of the whole colony. This colony promised religious freedom to

all Christians. Penn named the capital of his colony Philadelphia, or the City of Brotherly Love. He designed the city himself in a checkerboard pattern that became a model for other cities after. The Ideal of Georgia The English also founded the southern colony of Georgia. In 1732 King George II granted a charter to James Oglethorpe. This colony was started to give poor English citizens a place to live as well as prisoners in England to have a place to work off their debt.

The King also hoped it would serve as a shield or buffer between Spanish Florida and the other English colonies. Slavery was outlawed by Oglethorpe but by 1752, the charter was revoked, England gained control of the colony, and slavery was permitted.

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