The Effects of Boat Noise on Resource Competition in the Blue ...
An Analysis of Potential Impacts from Simulated Vessel Noise and Sonar on Commercially Important Invertebrates Dr. Jason Krumholz1, Dr. Dave Hudson2, Darby Pochtar3, Natasha Dickenson4, Dr. Georges Dossot4, Ed Baker5 , Tara Moll4 McLaughlin Research Corporation, Middletown, RI 2 The Maritime Aquarium at Norwalk, Norwalk CT 3University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 4 Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, RI University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansett, RI 1 5 S Background Invertebrates hear at 10-1000 Hz* but may feel vibration and
presssure from other frequencies*. Previous research* indicates sublethal impacts such as: Stress NOAA, 2012 Disruption in feeding Noise Level Above Ambient (dB re 1Pa @1m, 60 Hz) Sluggish return to shelter Increased energy expenditure Reduced Fitness Potentially additive for species already facing population stress from fisheries *Celi et al. 2015; Filiciotto et al. 2014; Popper et al. 2001;Wale et al. 2013; Edmonds et al. 2016 The Players: Blue Crab
(Callinectes sapidus) American Lobster (Homarus americanus) DM Hudson 2017 DM Hudson 2017 Present along much of US east coast, along with heavy maritime traffic Established methods for assessing behavioral Tank Design Common design: source on one side, and hydrophone on the other More natural BUT Uneven sound field
From Celi et al. 2015 edge effects peaks and nulls from reflection Camera s Standing wave tube design: More uniform sound field 4 replicate enclosure s Can quantify both sound
pressure and particle motion Source Acoustic Signals Animals were exposed to two types of transmissions: Low frequency simulated merchant vessel noise, broadband with significant mechanical-borne harmonics (e.g. 60 Hz). Signals transmitted from a USRD* J-11 acoustic projector. SPL of 169-172 dB re 1Pa. Mid-frequency Repetitious pulsed tones at 1667 Hz and chirps between 2.5-4 kHz with one second duration. Signals transmitted from a Lubbell Labs source. SPL of 177-182 dB re 1Pa. * Underwater Sound Reference From Celi et al.
2015 Camera s 4 replicate enclosure s Source Tank Sound Field Pen Pen At low frequencies (below 1 kHz), sound field is uniform
Above 1 kHz, sound field is more complex, including nulls Exposure Treatments Animals acclimated, exposed (1hr), then monitored Treatments: Control Boat Noise Mid Frequency PART 1: Animals measured for: Acute activity/shelter use (Ethovision XT) Physiology (0-7 days, HSP 27, Glucose) PART 2: Interspecific competition Blue and green crabs only Behavior analysis (Ethovision XT) opaque shelter Part 1: Acute Activity Level
Activity Average (cm/min) 25 a a 20 C. sapidus a 15 a a,b 10 b 5 0
Control Mid-Frequency Treatment Boat Noise C. sapidus One-way ANOVA, p = 0.05 Glucose (mM) Glucose 250 Boat Noise 200 c C. sapidus Control
Mid Frequency 150 a a a a a 100 b b 50 0 0
b b 1 3 Time Since Exposure (Days) One-way ANOVA, p = 0.0193 b b 7 One-way ANOVA, p = 0.00357 Glucose (mM) Glucose 250
200 150 100 Control Boat Noise Mid Frequency a a a a a b b 0
c a,c a 50 0 H. americanus b 1 3 Time Since Exposure (Days) a,b 7 One-way ANOVA, p < 0.001
Part 1: Results Summary BEHAVIOR: Boat noise = reduced activity significant for C. sapidus HSP 27: no differences, either species GLUCOSE: Elevated at 0H, and subsequently decreasing in controls Boat noise = Elevated stress after 24H significant for C. sapidus BOTH SPECIES, strong response to MF @ 7 days Part 2: Blue Crab/Green Crab Competition Assessed interspecific interactions between vessel noise exposed and control blue crabs in the presence of unexposed green crabs Why expose only blue crabs?
Blue crabs are broadly distributed (water column, deep channels, intertidal) Green crabs are more commonly found in shallow, intertidal areas Boat noise at potentially damaging levels (>130 dB) does not propagate far Blue crabs are more likely to be exposed to Part 2: Methods Shelter H0: Boat noise exposure will not cause a shift in blue crab behavior when presented with a natural competitor will alter how the blue crabs respond to a competition scenario 50.8 cm Ha: Exposure to boat noise
Blue Crab Food Green Crab 50.8 cm * Not to scale Behavioral Observations Control Blue Crab Fighting Instigator Food Handling Food Defense Merals Spread Touch or Push Burrowing or
Burrowed Shelter Use Rapid Escape from Fight Climbing on sides Fighting Victim or Defender Sitting in open Blue Crab Exposed to Boat N Behavioral Changes in Blue Crab due to Boat Noise Exposure *One-way ANOVA = p < 0.05 45 40 *
Percent of time 35 30 25 * 20 15 10 5 0 Dominant Fighting Dominant Feeding Control Blue with Green Submissive Neutral Exposed Blue with Green
Part 2: Results Summary Behavioral impacts with exposure to boat noise include: Increase in aggressive behavior Decrease in feeding behavior Reduced locomotion during testing (significant for C. sapidus only) Behavioral shift could result in decreased fitness Future Work: Acute vs.
Chronic Improve understanding of 7-day glucose spike Study physiological and behavioral response to long term exposure Acute response: crab eventually has normal behavior again Chronic response: the shift in behavior persists Acknowledgements United States Fleet Forces Command, Laura Busch Joe Iafrate, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport
Candace Oviatt, University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography Lisa Kaplan, Quinnipiac University Brianne Neptin, University of Rhode Island BACKUP SLIDES Methods Exposure conducted similar to previous experiment 24 hours later, the competition experiments were performed:
Acclimated for 1 hour 1 hour trial Video recorded (GoPro) and behaviors categorized with EthovisionXT Trial Setup: Food in one corner and shelter in opposite corner Matched pairs based on wet weight Hypothesis
H0: Boat noise exposure will not cause a shift in blue crab behavior when presented with a natural competitor Ha: Exposure to boat noise will alter how the blue crabs respond to a competition scenario Acoustic pressure levels Mid-frequency: Chirps vary between 177-182 dB re 1Pa over the exposure area Sweep/ chirp transitions through a frequency range, which levels out pressure levels over the exposure area. Low frequency: Levels 60-1000 Hz show a relatively uniform broadband sound field. Frequency variability on the order of 5 Acoustic measurements
A comprehensive understanding of the sound field employed during exposure trials Objectives Create a uniform exposure zone suitable for the biological studys requirements Base the tank geometry around a standing wave tube approach Empirically quantify the acoustic pressure and particle acceleration fields the crustaceans were exposed to. Methods Spatially quantify the sound field and in terms of pressure and particle motion between 60Hz and 4 kHz for the entire tank Measure the acoustic pressure at maximum exposure levels using an F42
reference phone. Measure the pressure and particle acceleration fields using an acoustic vector sensor 5 cm sampling grid! Low-frequency pressure and particle motion Radial dependence Acoustic vector sensor measurements taken at the pen height, providing acoustic pressure and particle acceleration levels. Source level adjusted for measurement purposes (not indicative of exposure levels). Particle velocity calculated by integrating accelerometer signals. At low frequencies the acoustic wavelength is less than tank diameter. Therefore the acoustic field varies similar to a standing wave tube. Particle acceleration levels at the pen height are stable. Low-frequency pressure and particle motion Vertical dependence Acoustic vector sensor measurements taken along the vertical dimension of the tank, providing acoustic
pressure and particle acceleration levels. Source level adjusted for measurement purposes (not indicative of exposure levels). Particle velocity calculated by integrating accelerometer signals. Pen At low frequencies the acoustic wavelength is less than tank diameter. Therefore the acoustic field varies similar to a standing wave tube. Particle acceleration levels at the pen (35 cm) height are stable. Mid-frequency pressure and particle motion Radial dependence Acoustic vector sensor measurements taken at the pen height, providing acoustic pressure and particle acceleration levels. Source level adjusted for measurement purposes (not indicative of exposure levels). Particle velocity calculated by integrating accelerometer signals. At mid-frequencies the acoustic wavelength is comparable or shorter than the tank diameter. Therefore the acoustic field varies much more dramatically. Several acoustic modes may exist. Mid-frequency pressure and particle motion Vertical dependence Acoustic vector sensor measurements taken along the vertical dimension of the tank, providing acoustic pressure and particle acceleration levels. Source level adjusted for measurement purposes (not indicative of exposure levels). Particle velocity calculated by integrating accelerometer signals.
Pen At mid-frequencies the acoustic wavelength is comparable or shorter than the tank diameter. Therefore the acoustic field varies much more dramatically. Several acoustic modes may exist. Collection Area Collected crabs from marsh off Galilee Escape Rd, Narragansett RI
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