The Effect of Interactive Writing on the Development of Early ...
The Effect of Interactive Writing on the Development of Early Writing Skills of Preschool Students Sharon Lindebak CI804 Wichita State University May 3, 2012 Outline of Presentation Literature Review Research Question Methodology Results Conclusion Discussion References Introduction
Majority of children do not write well enough to meet educational or workplace demands. Writing was the most neglected of the 3 Rs in the classroom. National Assessment of Educational Progress (2003) National Commission on Writing (2003) Researchers agree on the importance of
writing instruction, but disagree about theory of writing development. (as cited in Roth & Guinee, 2011) Theories of Writing Development Linearity Hypothesis Sequential set of skills Development of universal features (lines, spacing) Followed by language-specific characteristics (directionality, symbol shapes) Universal features as young as 3 and 4 years old
Unified Hypothesis Universal and language-specific features develop simultaneously No specific order Based on experiences and meaning Features as young 3 and 4 years old (Puranik & Lonigan, 2009) Puranik and Lonigan Study (2009)
Conceptually coherent examination of writing development Quantified writing features Broad range of emergent skills Findings from over 300 preschoolers Writing features develop sequentially Writing proficiency was task dependent Connections between phonological awareness and
literacy acquisition Two key ideas about writing Signprint carries meaning Messagespoken language can be recorded as written language Importance of reading pictorial representations as text (as cited in Kissel, Hansen, Tower & Lawrence, 2011) Instructional Writing Strategies Creating a writing block Teaching in the zone of proximal
development Scaffold writing Use of private speech Materialization Assessing developmental stages (Gentry, 2005) Gentrys Writing Scale (1977)
Started as a scale to measure developmental stages of spelling Identifies levels of emergent writing Focuses on specific writing elements and alphabetic principles Five developmental stages (0-4) focusing on print awareness, understanding and application Writing is considered in a stage when more than half of the invented spelling meets the stage criteria (Gentry, 2005) Research Question What is the effect of Interactive Writing on the development of early writing skills of preschool students? Methodology: Participants
14 prekindergarten students 8 girls and 6 boys 8 students qualify at-risk 6 students have IEPs 1 nonverbal student 1 ESOL student 3 students receive occupational therapy services and use an alternative writing program within the classroom Methodology: Interactive
Writing Collaborative writing experience Instruction begins with a small or large group negotiating written text with teacher Teacher supports participation in the process and product (shared-pen) Teacher talks through literacy concepts based on the needs of the learners Followed by independent writing (Roth & Guinee, 2011) Methodology: Procedure
Week 1: Initial writing samples Write or draw a story about themselves Week 2: Interactive Writing Message Theme-spring weather, storms, rain Indirect themes-sentences, capital letters, writing on lines, how to make certain letters, beginning sounds No follow-up writing sample Methodology: Procedure
Theme--favorite things Indirect themes--sentences, capital letters, beginning and end sounds, punctuation, segmentation Follow-up sample Methodology: Assessments Writing Samples Gentrys Writing Scale (5 writing stages) Adapted version of Gentrys Writing Scale (8 writing stages)
Anecdotal notes taken during interactive and independent writing A L G T E (alligator) Story about a snakeused a book as a resource Story about her family and then started coloring over her drawings Results Initial Writing
Class Average2.4 Girls Average2.6 Boys Average2.0 After Final Interactive Writing Class Average3.3 Girls Average3.8 Boys Average2.7 Stage 2: Letter-like forms emerge, sometimes
randomly placed, and are interspersed with numbers *Children can tell about their own drawings or writings *Spacing is rarely present Stage 3: Strings of letters and letter-like forms *Developing awareness of sound to symbolnot matching most sounds *Most letters capital with no spacing Gentrys Writing Scale excerpt from (Gentry, 2005) Gain Scores of Interactive Writing
Interactive Writing Gains Class Average.93 Girls Average --1.1 Boys Average --.67 Increase of 1.0 is the equivalent of one developmental writing stage Conclusion Gains for 11 out of 14 participants Increased awareness
Title at top of page Labels More detailed drawings (background) Increase use of letters and invented spelling Using classroom resources Participation Discussion Writing stages should not be used in isolation Processes, products, interactions Vast amounts of research on writing development and emergent writing skillsmany gaps in understanding of writing development Narrowing the focus
Recommendations Longitudinal study Variety of writing tasks (letter and words, name writing, composing) Portfolio and continuum References Gentry, J. R. (2005). Instructional techniques for emerging writers and special needs students at kindergarten and grade 1 levels. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 113-134. Kissel, B., Hansen, J., Tower, H., & Lawrence, J. (2011). The influential interactions of pre-kindergarten writers. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 11(4), 425-452. Puranik, C. S., & Lonigan, C. J. (2011, May). From scribbles to scrabbles: Preschool children's developing knowledge of written language. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24(5), 567-589.
Roth, K., & Guinee, K. (2011). Ten minutes a day; The impact of Interactive Writing on first graders' independent writing. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 11(3), 331-361.
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