The Digestive System - Deer Valley Unified School District

The Digestive System - Deer Valley Unified School District

The Digestive System Introduction The digestive system is used for breaking down food into nutrients which then pass into the circulatory system and are taken to where they are needed in the body.

Introduction There are four stages to food digestion: 1. Ingestion: taking in food 2. Digestion: breaking down food into nutrients 3. Absorption: taking in nutrients by cells and circulatory system 4. Egestion: removing any

leftover wastes The Human Digestive System Begins when food enters the mouth. It is physically broken down by the teeth. It is begun to be chemically broken down by an enzyme in saliva that breaks

down carbohydrates. The Human Digestive System The tongue moves the food around until it forms a ball called a bolus. The bolus is passed to the pharynx (throat) and the epiglottis makes sure the bolus

passes into the esophagus and not down the windpipe! The Human Digestive System The bolus passes down the esophagus by peristalsis. Peristalsis is a wave of muscular contractions that push the bolus down

towards the stomach. The Human Digestive System The stomach has folds called rugae and is a big muscular pouch which churns the bolus (Physical Digestion) and mixes bolus with gastric

juice, stomach acid, and enzymes then churns it. The Human Digestive System The acid kills off any invading bacteria or viruses. The enzymes help break down proteins and lipids = Chemical Digestion.

The mucus protects the lining of the stomach from being eaten away by the acid. The Human Digestive System The stomach absorb some medicines (i.e. aspirin), and water The digested bolus

is now called chyme and enters small intestine. The Human Digestive System Chyme goes into small intestine (SI). nutrients absorption occurs in SI . The liver and pancreas adds more

enzymes SI is broken down into three parts: The Human Digestive System 1. Duodenum Bile, produced in the liver but stored in the gall bladder, enters through the bile duct. It breaks down fats.

The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice to reduce the acidity of the chyme. The Human Digestive System 2. Jejunum The jejunum is where the majority of absorption takes place.

It has tiny fingerlike projections called villi lining it, which increase the surface area for absorbing The Human Digestive System Each villi itself has tiny fingerlike projections called microvilli, which further increase the surface area for absorption.

Blood going to the Small Intestine The circulatory system sends blood to the digestive system (especially the small intestine) to carry away the digested nutrients to other parts of the body. Your muscles, bones, skin, organs (in essence, everything) needs nutrients from the digested food. It is your blood that delivers all of these nutrients.

Circulatory Sys. This slide shows how blood enter the microvilli to carry nutrients away to other parts of the body. The Hormone Gastrin The circulatory systems role What percentage of

the blood leaving heart goes directly to the digestive system? The Hormone Gastrin The Human Digestive System 3. Ileum The last portion of the small intestine

is the ileum, which has fewer villi and basically compacts the leftovers to pass into the large intestine. The Human Digestive System The large intestine (or colon) is used to absorb water from the waste material

leftover and to produce vitamin K and some B vitamins using the helpful bacteria that live here. The Human Digestive System All leftover waste is compacted and stored at the end of the large intestine

called the rectum. Digestion and Homeostasis The endocrine, nervous, digestive and circulatory systems all work together to control digestion. Before we eat, smelling food releases saliva in our

mouths and gastrin in our stomachs which prepares the The Hormone Gastrin Digestion and Homeostasis A large meal activates receptors that churn the stomach and empty it faster.

If the meal was high in fat, digestion is slowed, allowing time for the fat to be broken down. Hence why we feel fuller after eating a high fat meal.

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