The Density of Seawater - Mrs. McPherson's Web Page
The 3 Clinesof Seawater The 3 Clines: Thermocline: Transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep
water layer. The definitions of these layers are based on temperature (surface water is warmer due to suns radiation). Halocline: Cline caused by a strong, vertical salinity gradient within a body of water.
Since salinity (along with temperature) affects the density of seawater, it can play a role in its vertical stratification. Pycnocline: Cline (or layer) where the density gradient (z) is greatest within a body of water.
Variation of Temperature with Depth Thermocline Graphs Sun warms the surface Cold at depth
Cold everywhere Isothermal: Where there is
not a strong change in temperature (Thermocline is absent)
Thermocline graphs are also controlled by latitudes. (Why?) Thermocline graphs are also controlled by the seasons. (Why?)
Density Zones The ocean is broken into density zones The 3 density zones are controlled by: Temperature salinity
Zone 1: Surface zone the upper layer of the ocean, least dense of all seawater. (2%) Zone 2: Pycnocline the density of the water increases with depth.(18%)
Zone 3: Deep zone Ocean water density is constant in this layer. (80%) Density Zones in the Ocean
The Ocean Is Stratified into Three Density Zones by Temperature and Salinity Density increases rapidly with depth in the pycnocline.
Below the pycnocline lies the deep zone of cold, dense water. As the water gets deeper, the temperature decreases
As the water gets deeper, the salinity increases more dissolved Pycnocline graphs are also controlled by latitude
Why? Explain these graphs .. And explain how the Pynocline graph is the opposite of the Thermocline graph. The relationship between temperature and
salinity of seawater controls the density of seawater.(Explain this trend) Surface Water Controls Global Temperature
Density depends on Latitude There is no pycnocline in the higher latitudes, Why? Pycno = density cline = slope
Explain these graphs .. And explain how the Pynocline graph is the opposite of the Thermocline graph. Temperature and Salinity The relationship between
temperature and salinity of seawater controls the density of seawater. Explain this trend Surface Water and Global
Temperature What is responsible for bringing warm water to Stornoway? What is responsible for bringing cold water to
Hopedale? What area is still Glacial? What might happen if the warm current stops getting to Stornoway?
Water and Evaporation Water has the highest Heat of Vaporization of any known substance. Before A ice is forming Between A and B ice is absorbing
energy to start melting but the temperature stays the same Between C and D, water is storing energy to evaporate but does not change temperature After D, water evaporates
General Idea: It takes much more energy for liquid water to evaporate than for liquid
water to freeze. During the Vaporization and Latent stages the temperature of the water does not
change. Water Removes Heat from Surfaces As It Evaporates Heat Capacity of Water
Water has a very high heat capacity, which means it can absorb huge amounts of heat. Not all substances have the same heat capacity
Waters Temperature Affects Its Density Solid, Liquid and Gas
Solid Crystals of frozen water have an unique shape . This causes water to expand when it freezes to forms ice.
This also makes ice less dense causing ice to float on seawater What would happen if ice did not float but sank to the bottom of lakes
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