The Atmosphere - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Atmosphere - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Atmosphere: Part 2: Radiative equilibrium Composition / Structure Radiative transfer Vertical and latitudinal heat transport Atmospheric circulation

Climate modeling Suggested further reading: Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (Academic Press, 1994) Planetary energy balance S 0 1367 Wm 2 incident solar radiation incident per unit area S 0 a 2 4 a

2 1 4 2 S 0 342 Wm 2

Solar radiation absorbed per unit area 1 p S40 239 Wm planetary albedo p 0. 30 Emitted terrestrial radiation per unit area T 4e Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5. 67 10 8 Wm 2 K 4 Emission temperature Te S 0 1 p 4

1 4 255 K Atmospheric absorption Principal atmospheric absorbers H2O: Bent triatomic, with permanent dipole moment and pure rotational bands as well as

rotation-vibration transitions CO2 : No permanent dipole moment, so no pure rotational transitions, but temporary dipole during vibrational transitions O3: Like water, but also involved in photodissociation Other gases: CH4, N2O, CFCs Clouds and aerosols Top of atmosphere: A T 4a

T 4a by definition 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e

T 4e 1 p S40 Ta Te Top of atmosphere: A T 4a T 4a by definition

1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e T 4e 1 p S40 Ta Te Bottom of atmosphere: A T 4a T 4e

S T 4s T 4s 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e 2 T 4e Top of atmosphere: A T 4a

T 4a by definition 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e T 4e 1 p S40

Ta Te Bottom of atmosphere: A T 4a T 4e S T 4s T 4s 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e 2 T 4e

1 4 T s 2 T e 303 K Top of atmosphere: A T 4a T 4a

by definition 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e T 4e 1 p S40 Ta Te Bottom of atmosphere:

A T 4a T 4e S T 4s T 4s 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e 2 T 4e 1 4

T s 2 T e 303 K A more opaque atmosphere a warmer surface Ta = Te T b = 21/4Te Ts = 31/4Te Top of atmosphere: A T 4a

T 4a by definition 1 4 1 p S 0 T 4e

T 4e 1 p S40 Ta Te Bottom of atmosphere: A T 4a T 4e S T 4s T 4s 1 4

1 p S 0 T 4e 2 T 4e 1 4 T s 2 T e 303 K Atmospheric energy balance Atmospheric energy balance Radiative equilibrium profile

Full calculation of radiative equilibrium Full calculation of radiative equilibrium surface much too warm Full calculation of radiative equilibrium tropopause too cold surface much too

warm Full calculation of radiative equilibrium tropospheric lapse rate too large tropopause too cold surface much too warm

Full calculation of radiative equilibrium stratosphere about right tropospheric lapse rate too large tropopause too cold surface much too warm

Radiative equilibrium: role of various absorbers Approach to equilibrium Effect of clouds Radiative effect of clouds Altitude and thickness Shape Liquid water content Ice/water Particle sizes

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