Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting ...

Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting ...

Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point Chapter 10 Questioning Strategies and Leading Discussions Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 10 Topics Behaviorism and Questioning

Teacher Questioning Strategies How to Ask Questions Responding to Student Responses Using Questions to Encourage Discussion Questioning Strategies and Diverse Populations Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Behaviorism as a Narrow Approach to Questioning

Stimulus Response Feedback Question Response Evaluate Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Teacher Questioning Strategies Convergent: Single answer expected; Divergent: Open-ended Questions can be used to check on childs ideas (e.g., Engage) Questioning to nudge students in a direction (e.g., Explore phase) Question type varies based upon purpose (e.g., Explain)

Questions can ask students to transfer knowledge (e.g., Extend) There is no uniformly good type of question Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 How to Ask Questions Beyond knowing WHAT questions and WHEN to ask them, it is important to appreciate HOW to ask A pause of just a few seconds after asking a question but before calling on a student gives time to think: Wait Time 1

Wait Time 1 is difficult if you equate teaching with talking. The time to compose a response only requires a short silence While it may feel awkward at first, Wait Time 1 is sufficiently effective that it can become a good questioning habit Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Responding to Student Responses Provide specific feedback and not vague praise. Help everyone who heard the answer know what made the answer correct

Follow-up with Wait Time 2this can encourage more complete responses and cause others to share their ideas For convergent questions that are plainly wrong, it is appropriate to give feedback with a gentle no Other responses including probing (digging in), rephrasing (tweaked question), and redirecting (bouncing question to someone else) Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012

Wait Time within Questioning Wait Time 1: 3 to 5 seconds before calling on someone Wait Time 2: 3 second pause (or less) after answer Wait Time leads to more complete and correct responses Wait Time allows for wider participation in discussions Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Encouraging Discussions

Create a climate where it is okay to take risks Pose questions that do not have an obvious answer Invite a range of students to contribute Strive to keep the discussion close to chosen theme Encourage students to use accurate language Make it clear that claims should be supported by evidence Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Questioning and Diversity

The goal is for everyone to feel okay with contributing Make it obvious that science talk is a distinct genre ThinkPairShare gives small group practice with talking Guard against sending messages about low expectations Be thoughtful about when to correct grammar and terms Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 10 Summary Behaviorism is a narrow approach to questioning

Vary questions according to phase of Learning Cycle Recognize that how questions are asked is important Support and build upon student responses Questioning can signal a larger group discussion Make adjustments so all students can participate Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012

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