Surfacing: A Genealogy of Computer Interfaces and, Sometimes ...

Surfacing: A Genealogy of Computer Interfaces and, Sometimes ...

Surfacing: A Genealogy of Computer Interfaces and, Sometimes, Technical Communication Johndan Johnson-Eilola Purdue University

Automation and Work Pretty speeches about cooperation, communication, and common interests cannot hide the fact that in most companies, people who are doing the actual work do not belong or do not feel that they do.

(Floyd, Lets Be Honest About Automation. Computers and Automation, Sept. 1962, XI.9) Surfacing: An Overview Interface: Primary Space for Intellectual Labor in the Next Century Quality of Work Linked to Interface Tech Comm Increasingly Fragmented, Made Invisible

Postmodernist Shift: Time to Space Philosophy (Feenberg, Foucault) Literary Theory (Jameson, Baudrillard) Management Theory (Drucker, Zuboff) Usability (Suchman, Wurman) Interface and Work

Knowledge interfa ce location o f knowledge 1950s-1960s hardwired outside interface: education,

training (few manuals) 1960s-1970s punch cards outside interface: education, training, manuals, courses 1970s-1980s

commandine l interface outside interface or at secondlevel deepni interface: education, training, manuals, courses, man pa ges 1980s-1990s

graphical n i terface into interface: shifting toward (wimp) limited interface s( urface) 1990s-2000s spatial (MOO/VR) potential hybrid: surface + social (reintroduction of time)

Time-Based Interfaces User Interaction Limited User Communication Serial Knowledge Accumulated in Larger Context via Apprenticeship

Space-Based Interface: CLI CLI = Command Line Interface User Interacts Directly (+ Serially) Knowledge Moves into Computer (But is Still Normally Invisible)

Command Line Interface Command Line Interface Graphical Interface: GUI User Interacts Across Two Dimensions Knowledge Surfaces

Knowledge Space Shrinks Graphical Interface: GUI Contracting Spaces and Times Work Space Condenses, Flattens Help Space Condenses,

Disappears Interface Structures (and Deconstructs) Work Feenbergs Primary and Secondary Moments of Instrumentalization Primary Instrumentalization: (Automation)

Secondary Instrumentalization (Recontextualization) Decontextualization Concretization Autonomization

Vocation Reduction Aesthetic Investment Positioning Collegiality Social Interface: ProNoun

MOO Surfaces Social Re-Integrates Work into Social Context Focuses on Communication as Ongoing Process Social Interface: ProNoun

MOO Communication as the Future of Work Take Control of the Interface Communication as the Future of Work Take Control of the Interface Make Tech Comm the Focus, not Technology

Communication as the Future of Work Take Control of the Interface Make Tech Comm the Focus, not Technology Technology = Rhetoric Communication as the Future of Work Take Control of the Interface

Make Tech Comm the Focus, not Technology Technology = Rhetoric Improve Our Public and Corporate Image

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