STARCHY STAPLES Potato, Sweet potato, Cassava Most of staples popular in Pakistan Starch food reserves in underground organs (roots or modified stem) Starch-polymer of glucose molecule Tropical origin High in carbohydrates, low in proteins STARCH MOLECULE Amylose poly-(1-4) glucose,
a straight chain Tends to coil up into a helix Amylopectin is poly(1-4) glucose with branches Open molecular structure than amylose Because it has more ends broken more quickly than amylose by amylase enzymes
Modified Organs Rhizome underground horizontal stem Food storage organ Leaves reduced in form of scales on surface of rhizome Roots adventitious Buds on nodes give rise to new plants
Tubers enlarged storage tip of rhizome White potato Eyes are buds that form new plant Bulbs modified storage organs mostly in monocots Underground stems with fleshy leaves Onions, Tulips New bulbs can develop in the leaves axils
White Potatoes Solanum tuberosum associated with Ireland Established in 1965
Dietry staple food for Irish people Ideal climate and soil for potato Small plots of land sufficient to feed a family Historian link population explosion to presence of reliable food Average adult consumption of potato 4 to 6kg each day Reliance on potatoes set the disaster: Irish potato famine of 1845-1849 Pathogen Phytophthora infestans cause of
late blight of potato Fungus attacks leaves, blacken them stopping tuber growth In cool wet weather, fungus kills plant within a week
Disease appeared in 1845 in Ireland Widespread destruction of potato crop 1million people died from starvation Resulted 20-30% decline of population in Ireland in Ireland in less than a decade Conflicts between English rulers and Irish people another reason In history, Ireland a colony of English people and Irish were shamelessly exploited Solanum tuberosum
Genus Solanum- cultivated potato 2,000 species in Solanaceae
S. tuberosum 6,000 cultivars Europe produce 70% of world crop China second leading producer and next Brazil Stem of two types Ordinary foliage bearing stems Underground rhizome that ends in tubers Anatomically, tuber modified version of dicot stem Enlarged pith, a ring of vascular bundle, and narrow cortex
Vascular tissue appear black in potato chips with narrow cortex on outside and large pith within ring Cool season crop with maximum tuber production ranging under 15to 18C Higher temperature inhibit tuber production (29C) Potato cultivation through propagation by seed potatoes, small tubers or cut pieces containing at least one eye
Seed potatoes cultivation- asexual reproduction producing plants genetically identical to their parents and maintaining desired traits within a cultivar Seed potatoes checked for diseases Fast method Disadvantage- Share same susceptibility to adverse environmental conditions Susceptible to Phytophthora infestans and Colorado potato beetle
Potato beetles became resistant to chemical insecticides used for control Red Russet Potatoes Varieties white Round white used for baking, chips, fires
Russets elongate, cylindrical tubers, excellent for baking purposes, common in Pakistan Russets potatoes high in starch Round red and long white relatively new Good for boiling steaming, roasting Potatoes rich in carbohydrates (25% of fresh weight) Parenchyma cells within pith filled with starch grains Vitamin, minerals and fibers in cortex
and periderm Nutritional value enhanced when consumed with skin Sweet Potatoes
Ipomoea batatus Storage root in family Convolvulaceae Habitat vine Columbus discovered sweet potatoes Native to South America China dominating country in production Drier, starchier variety in Northern States Sweeter, moist, deep orange (Yams)
common in South Rich in carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals 50% more calories than white potatoes Root source of carotene, vitamin A, C Thanksgiving diet Bananas Important dietary staple in in tropical countries Popular dessert, source of starch and
potassium Sweet banana Tree habitat Herbaceous with height of 6meters or 20 feet
Bananas native to Southeast Asia Cultivated 2500 years Genus Musa in Musaceae Require tropical climate with constant moisture Cultivated for food, fibre, foliage (natural waxed paper) Banana Tree Plantains
Important food in poor countries Planta-sole of foot Genus Plantago
P. ovata P. afra (Grown in India) Twice the size of banana Sour or sweet in taste Ripe black plantain more sweet than banana Plantains Ten times more B-carotene than banana Source of vitamin A, C, B6, potassium, iron and magnesium Helpful in treating ulcers
Green, unripe varieties have enzymes for healing CASSAVA Manihot esculenta Family Euphorbiaceae
Known as Manioc, Yuca, Mandioca Ranks fourth behind rice, sugar and corn as source of calories in tropical countries Tall shrub with palmately compound leaves Can tolerate dry period upto 6 moths CASSAVA Cassava plant Roots
Varieties may be sweet or bitter Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) If not removed, toxin may cause death by cyanide poisoning HCN liberate through enzymatic actions cyanogenic glycosides Sweet and bitter varieties differ only on cyanide content Environmental conditions influence cyanide production
Sweet variety can be bitter under different condition Traditional methods for treating bitter ones varies May include drying, soaking, boiling, draining Processed to make flour In Indonesia, peeled roots sliced, dried in sun, allows HCN to diffuse Resulting chips called gaplek Stored for long period of time or ground
into flour Breads, cakes, cookies, noodles Starch rich (30% of fresh weight) Protein content is being improved through cassava breeding programmes Roots also contain calcium, vitamin B and C Being used for Bioethanol Recommended Links http://www.all-about-potatoes.com/types-ofpotatoes.html
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