Chapter 4 Operating Systems and File Management Computer

Chapter 4 Operating Systems and File Management Computer

Chapter 4 Operating Systems and File Management Computer Concepts 2012 4 Chapter Contents

Section A: Operating System Basics Section B: Todays Operating Systems Section C: File Basics Section D: File Management Section E: Backup Security Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 2 4 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

040100 An operating system manages a computers resources such as the processor, RAM, and storage space. 040200 Multithreading provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously. 040300 GUI stands for graphic usability icons. 040400 A bootstrap program is a popular type of application software. 040500 During a computing session, the operating system is executed from RAM. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

3 4 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 040600 The Windows kernel is the same as the Mac OS kernel. 040700 Macs featured a graphical user interface before PCs. 040800 Boot Camp is a dual boot utility for Macs. 040900 Mac files have a data fork and a resource fork. 041000 Fedora, Ubuntu, and SUSE are Linux distributions.

041100 A disk partition is basically a folder. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 4 4 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False 041200 A file specification is also called a path. 041300 Windows Explorer is a file management utility. 041400 Disks are formatted into tracks and sectors. 041500 Time Machine is synchronization software used for

backup on Macs. 041600 To repopulate a new hard disk from an incremental backup, you have to first restore a full backup. 041700 A boot disk contains a complete copy of your computers hard disk as it existed when the computer was new. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

5 4 SECTION Operating System Basics A Operating System Activities User Interfaces The Boot Process

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 6 4 Question 042100 A computer handles many tasks simultaneously. Which one of the following refers to the processors ability to handle multiple tasks, rather than the operating systems ability to do so? A. Multi-core B. Multitasking C. Multithreading

D. Multiprocessing Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 7 4 Operating System Activities An operating system is a type of system software that acts as the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer system Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

8 4 Operating System Activities Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 9 4 Operating System Activities Multitasking provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously Within a single program, multithreading allows multiple parts,

or threads, to run simultaneously An operating systems multiprocessing capability supports a division of labor among all the processing units Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 10 4 Operating System Activities Operating System Categories Single-user operating system Multiuser operating system Server operating system

Desktop operating system Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 11 4 User Interfaces The combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 12

4 User Interfaces Menus, submenus, and dialog boxes Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 13 4 The Boot Process During the boot process, the operating system kernel is loaded into RAM The kernel provides essential operating system services Your computers small bootstrap program is built into special

ROM circuitry housed in the computers system unit Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 14 4 The Boot Process Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 15 4

SECTION Todays Operating Systems B Microsoft Windows

Mac OS UNIX and Linux DOS Handheld Operating Systems Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 16 4 Question 042200 Todays popular operating systems include Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, and Google Chrome. Each has strengths and weaknesses that are important to understand. Which of the

following statements is correct? A. Google Chrome is built on the Windows kernel, so it is ideal for netbooks because it has good resistance to malware. B. If you dont like the user interface for Windows but want to run the vast variety of Windows software, you can install Linux. C. Linux and Mac OS have a reputation for being more stable than Windows. D. Windows includes software called Boot Camp that allows PCs to boot into different operating systems, such as Mac OS, Linux, Chrome, and Android. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 17

4 Microsoft Windows Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 18 4 Mac OS Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 19

4 Mac OS Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 20 4 Mac OS Popular virtual machine software such as VMware and Parallels Desktop can run on most computers with Intel microprocessors, including Intel Macs, PCs, and generic Linux computers Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

21 4 UNIX and Linux The UNIX operating system was developed in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Labs Dependable in multiuser environments Linux is an operating system distributed along with its source code under the terms of a GPL (General Public License) A Linux distribution is a download that contains the Linux kernel, system utilities, applications, and an installation routine

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 22 4 UNIX and Linux Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 23 4 DOS Disk Operating System First operating system that many used

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 24 4 Handheld Operating Systems Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 25 4

SECTION File Basics C File Names and Extensions File Directories and Folders File Formats Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 26

4 Question 042300 Suppose a friend sends you a file called Twain.dll. From the file name, what can you deduce? A. That it is a word processing document, probably about Mark Twain. B. That you should be able to open it using Microsoft Word. C. That the file extension makes it a virus. D. That it is a support program file, perhaps part of the device driver for your scanner. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

27 4 File Names and Extensions You must adhere to file-naming conventions when saving files Maximum length Prohibited characters No reserved words Case sensitivity File extensions are usually related to the file format Native file format

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 28 4 File Directories and Folders To designate a files location, you must first specify the device where the file is stored The main hard disk usually is referred to as drive C A disk partition is a section of hard disk drive that is treated as a separate storage unit Partitions can be assigned drive letters Partitions are not the same as folders

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 29 4 File Directories and Folders An operating system maintains a directory for each storage disk,CD, DVD, BD, or USB flash drive Root directory Subdirectory Depicted as folders A computers file location is defined by a file specification, or path

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 30 4 File Formats A file format refers to the organization and layout of data that is stored in a file The format of a file usually includes a header, data, and possibly an end-of-file marker A file header is a section of data at the beginning of a file that contains information about a file A file extension does not really define the format of a file

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 31 4 File Formats A software application can open files that exist in its native file format, plus several additional file formats Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 32

4 File Formats Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 33 4

SECTION File Management D Application-based File Management File Management Utilities File Management Metaphors Windows Explorer File Management Tips Physical File Storage

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 34 4 Question 042400 Before donating your computer to a charitable organization, you can make sure your personal data cannot be accessed from the hard disk by: A. Deleting any files that contain personal data. B. Deleting files containing personal data and then emptying the Recycle Bin or Trash. C. Deleting all the files and folders on your computers

hard disk. D. Deleting all files and folders and then using file shredder software. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 35 Application-Based File 4 Management Applications typically provide a way to open files and save

them in a specific folder on a storage device Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 36 Application-Based File 4 Management Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

37 4 File Management Utilities File management utilities show you the files stored on your disks and help you work with them Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 38

4 File Management Metaphors Storage metaphors help you visualize and mentally organize the files on your disks Logical storage models Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 39 4 Windows Explorer Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

40 4 Windows Explorer Windows Explorer allows you to manipulate files and folders in the following ways: Rename Copy Move Delete Windows offers a set of preconfigured personal folders, such as My Documents and My Music, for storing your personal

data files Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 41 4 File Management Tips

Use descriptive names Maintain file extensions Group similar files Organize your folders from the top down Consider using default folders Use Public folders for files you want to share Do not mix data files and program files Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 42

4 File Management Tips Dont store files in the root directory Access files from the hard disk Follow copyright rules Delete or archive files you no longer need Be aware of storage locations

Back up Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 43 4 Physical File Storage The physical storage model describes what happens on the disks and in the circuits Storage media must be formatted before it can store files Formatting utilities divide the disk into tracks and sectors

Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 44 4 Physical File Storage Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 45 4 Physical File Storage The file system keeps track of the names and locations

of files NTFS Master File Table (MFT) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 46 4 Physical File Storage Deleting a file changes the status of that files clusters to empty and removes the file name from the index file The files data is still there

File shredder software overwrites empty sectors with random 1s and 0s Files in the Windows Recycle Bin and similar utilities can be undeleted Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 47 4 Physical File Storage Fragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters and decrease performance Defragmentation utilities rearrange files so that they are

stored in contiguous clusters Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 48 4

SECTION Backup Security E Backup Basics File Copies and Synchronization System Synchronization File and System Backup Bare-metal Restore and Virtual Machines Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

49 4 Question 042500 Copying important data files from your computers hard disk to an optical disk or flash drive is a simple way to back up data. It is not a total backup solution, however. Why not? A. You cannot restore these files to a new hard disk without the activation codes. B. The backup is bootable, but it wont start your computer if the hard disk fails. C. You have not backed up your programs or your

personal settings. D. You have not backed up the restore points needed to reconfigure the Windows Registry for a new hard disk. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 50 4 Backup Basics A backup stores the files needed to recover data thats been wiped out by operator error, viruses, or hardware failures Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management

51 4 Backup Basics Your backup schedule depends on how much data you can afford to lose You should run an up-to-date virus check as the first step in your backup routine The backup device you select depends on the value of your data, your current equipment, and your budget Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 52

4 Backup Basics Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 53 File Copies and 4 Synchronization Unique files are difficult to reproduce

Manually copying and pasting requires you to select the files and destination device each time File synchronization software ensures that files in two or more locations contain the same data Originated with PDA To restore from a data file backup, you simply copy files from your backup to your hard disk Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 54 File

Copies and 4 Synchronization Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 55 4 System Synchronization Backs up all files and system software on your computer Time Machine The number of backups depends on the capacity of your

backup drive, and the frequency at which you make changes Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 56 4 File and System Backup Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 57 4 File and System Backup

A full backup makes a fresh copy of every file in the folders youve specified for the backup A differential backup makes a backup of only those files that were added or changed since your last full backup session An incremental backup makes a backup of the files that were added or changed since the last backupnot necessarily the files that changed from the last full backup Most experts recommend that you keep more than one set of backups Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 58

4 System Backup Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 59 Bare-Metal Restore and Virtual 4 Machines

Restoring a Windows computer usually entails several steps A bare-metal restore restores the computer in a single step A disk image is a bit-by-bit copy of the data from all sectors of a disk Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 60 Bare-Metal Restore and Virtual

4 Machines Mac users can depend on Time Machine Windows users can take the following steps: File backups Restore points Recovery disks System backup Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 61

4 What Do You Think? 043100 Should a computer virus distribution sentence carry the same penalty as manslaughter? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 043200 Should it be a crime to steal a copy of computer data while leaving the original data in place and unaltered? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 043300 Should hackers be sent to jail if they cannot pay restitution to companies and individuals who lost money as the

result of a prank? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 043400 Do you think that a hacker would make a good consultant on computer security? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 62

Chapter 4 Complete Computer Concepts 2012

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