EDPS302 Creating Positive Learning Environments Models of behaviour

EDPS302  Creating Positive Learning Environments Models of behaviour

EDPS302 Creating Positive Learning Environments Models of behaviour management Lecture 3 August 8, 2017 Ray Handley EDPS302 Creating Positive Learning Environments This week Behaviourist principles Overview of teacher-centred or controlling approaches Kounin / Jones / Canter punishment response environment negative schedules

s e h c a o r rewards p p a t s i r u o i external v observable a

h Be conditioning consequences systemmatic stimulus positive reinforcement reinforcement Behaviourist approaches 7 things games teach us about learning: 1. Measure progress 2. Multiple short and long term goals 3. Reward effort 4. Rapid, clear feedback 5. Uncertainty 6. Increases attentiveness and memory 7. Interaction with others Chatfield 2010 digital video

games Limit Setting/Controlling Models Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Positive Classroom Discipline - Fred Jones Characteristics of the Models Students require firm direction from teachers Learning and behaviour are closely linked Positive classroom relationships allow teachers to be trusted and respected Disruptive behaviour occurs in all classrooms. Good teachers use techniques to negate its impact on learning THE CRISIS CYCLE Integrated experience ten sio n

External control Staff actions iv e t ns lian fe p de om c nno Intervention options an x iety Internal control Client actions ac tin g

out re tio c u d n Limit Setting/Controlling Models Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Positive Classroom Discipline - Fred Jones Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin teaching and discipline need to be integrated

interested, stimulated and active learners reduce the risk of disruptive behaviour planned and coordinated activities within lessons reduce the likelihood of disruptive behaviour a positive, productive classroom atmosphere or tone is pervasive for all participants Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness Overlapping

Smoothness Momentum Group alerting By correcting correcting misbehaviours misbehaviours in in one one By student, itit often often influences influences the the behaviour behaviour

student, of nearby nearby students students of Conversely, noticing noticing positive positive behaviour behaviour in in Conversely, one or or aa small small group group of of students students draws draws one the attention attention of of the the others

others to to your your the expectations expectations Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness Overlapping Smoothness

Momentum Group alerting Always be alert to sights and sounds in the classroom. Arrange the seats so that students are always within eyesight. Scan the room when working with individuals or small groups of students. When helping an individual make sure that you do not have your back to the rest of the class. Briefly acknowledge misbehavior at first detection to let the class know that you know. Do not let the misbehaviour escalate before action is taken. Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness Overlapping Smoothness Momentum Group alerting

When instructing one group, the teacher should be able to acknowledge difficulties that students outside of the group may be having so that instruction continues moving. This also includes distractions from outside the classroom such as notes from the office or students walking through the hallways. Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness

Overlapping Smoothness Momentum Group alerting Preplan the lesson so that extraneous matters are realised ahead of time and taken care of. Supplies for the class should always be preorganised before class begins and close to where they will be used. Once students are doing their work and engaged, do not distract them. Leave them to their work and assist individuals with questions or needs. Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness Overlapping Smoothness Momentum Keep the lesson moving briskly.

Do not over-dwell on a minor or already understood concept. Correct students without nagging and quickly return to the lesson. Have students move from one activity to the next without being forced to wait for each other and each step in the transition. Group alerting Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Ripple effect Withitness

Overlapping Smoothness Momentum Group alerting Calling on students at random by asking a question only after scanning the room to make sure students are paying attention. Raising group interest by interspersing suspense between questions.

Having the entire class respond in unison. Physically moving around the room and asking students to show what they have done. Asking one student to respond and looking at others. Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. TEXT from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Kounin,_Jacob Limit Setting/Controlling Models Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Positive Classroom Discipline - Fred Jones Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter

Positive Discipline - Fred Jones Classroom management procedures must . . . . be positive and gentle. set limits and build cooperation in the absence of coercion be economical, practical and simple ultimately reduce the teacher's work load. offer incentives and encouragement for positive effort Jones, Fred (2000) Tools for Teaching. Santa Cruz, CA: Frederick Jones and Associates.

Positive Discipline - Fred Jones Three different management methods are integrated to form a three-tier approach to discipline management. Limit-setting limit-setting and relationship building form a tier of the management system which we might best describe as the interpersonal-interactive level of management. from http://www.fredjones.com/Positive_Discipline/Discipline_Ch18.html Positive Discipline - Fred Jones Three different management methods are integrated to form a three-tier approach to discipline management.

Limit-setting Incentive systems make the exchange of positive and negative sanctions prearranged, explicit, concrete, and public. from http://www.fredjones.com/Positive_Discipline/Discipline_Ch18.html Positive Discipline - Fred Jones Three different management methods are integrated to form a three-tier approach to discipline management. Limit-setting

Incentive systems Back-up systems negative sanctions provide a disincentive, or the containment of behaviour when cooperation is lost from http://www.fredjones.com/Positive_Discipline/Discipline_Ch18.html Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Eyes in the back of your head Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting:

Eyes in the back of your head Terminate Instruction Stop what you are doing and concentrate on the disruption Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Eyes in the back of your head Terminate Instruction Stop what you are doing and Face the student, concentrate

on themake disruption eye contact, and remain calm Turn, look, and say the students name Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Face the student, make eye contact, Walk calmly to the and frontremain of the calmdesk and avoid comments students Eyes in the back of your head

Terminate Instruction Turn, look, and say the students name Walk to the edge of the students desk Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Eyes in the back of your head Terminate Instruction Turn, look, and say the students name

Walk to the edge of the students desk Prompt Walk calmly to the front of the Demonstrate what is expected students desk and avoid comments Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Eyes in the back of your head Terminate Instruction Turn, look, and say the students name

Walk to the edge of the students desk Prompt Palms Demonstrate Leanwhat towards is expected the student Positive Discipline - Fred Jones There are seven steps in limit setting: Eyes in the back of your head

Terminate Instruction Turn, look, and say the students name Walk to the edge of the students desk Prompt Palms Camping out Shift andLean

maintain eye contact to towards the student show you are still aware Positive Classroom Discipline - Fred Jones Social cognitive theory Modelling & control In social learning theory, Albert Bandura (1977) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Common Common identity identity Resulting Resulting consequences consequences

Vicarious Vicarious reinforcement reinforcement Limit Setting/Controlling Models Preventive Discipline - Jacob Kounin Positive Classroom Discipline - Fred Jones Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter Teachers have the right to determine what is best for your students, and to expect compliance. No pupil should prevent you from teaching, or keep another student from learning. Student compliance is imperative in creating and maintaining an effective and efficient learning environment. To accomplish this goal, teachers must react assertively, as opposed to aggressively or non assertively. Hostile Teachers see students as adversaries use an abrasive, sarcastic and hostile style

focus on the person not on the behaviour meet their own needs but disregard the needs of the students Non-assertive Teachers ignore or react in desperation use a passive, inconsistent, timid and non-directive manner do not communicate their needs to the students show an uncertainty and fear of the students Assertive Teachers respond confidently, politely and quickly give firm, clear, concise directions to students build positive, trusting relationships are demanding, yet warm in interaction listen carefully to what their students have to say, and treat everyone fairly (not necessarily equally). Assertive Discipline Canter & Canter s e

r tu a Clear set of observable, class negotiated rules. Only 3 - 5 max. fe For behaviour that breaks the rules a clear, pre-determined set of consequences are laid out. Focus on positive behaviour with constant reinforcement through comments and recording of compliance. All students are targeted for both positive recognition and negative consequences when relevant. CLASS RULES No talking when the teacher is talking Stay in your seats Keep your hands and feet off other people and their property Follow the instructions given by the teacher CONSEQUENCES

1st name on board 1st warning 2nd tick - 2nd warning 3rd tick - 3rd warning 4th tick - stay back after class 5th tick - lunch time detention 6th tick - leave the class, interview with HT/ AP

CLASS CONSEQUENCES CLASS RULES 1st incident name on board - 1st warning No talking when the teacher is talking 2nd incident tick - 2nd warning Stay in your seats 3rd incident tick - 3rd warning your tick hands andback feet after off other 4thKeep incident - stay class people and their property 5th incident tick - lunch time detention Follow the instructions given by the 6thteacher incident tick - leave the class, interview with HT/AP

CLASS RULES No talking when the teacher is talking Stay in your seats Keep your hands and feet off other people and their property Follow the instructions given by the teacher CONSEQUENCES 1st name on board 1st warning 2nd tick - 2nd warning 3rd tick - 3rd warning 4th tick - stay back after class

5th tick - lunch time detention 6th tick - leave the class, interview with HT/AP Caleb Fabio Suzie Jack Bashir Shannon Carly Is it worth it? Jess Ryan Hassan Tamika Lucas Common pitfalls with Assertive Discipline

Students will not stop behaviours and often will be pushed to get more ticks as a challenge or act of revenge Ticks are delivered as punishment/consequences not cues/signals The list of students will be selective rather than inclusive Ticks are delivered only to certain students in the class No evidence of a ripple effect Positive comments to compliant students are not used enough or they are insincere Little dilemma for students to change Appropriate positive consequences are not in place Empathic listening Reflective or empathic listening skills Some key principles: More listening than talking Trying to understand the feelings

contained in what the other is saying, not just the facts or ideas. Responding with acceptance and empathy, not with indifference, cold objectivity or fake concern. Restating and clarifying what the other has said, not asking questions or telling what the listener feels, believes or wants. Responding to what is personal rather than to what is impersonal, distant or abstract. Sensing of the other's frame of reference while avoiding the temptation to respond from the listener's frame of reference. Empathic listening script Reflective or empathic listening skills A simple script: o IInnttrro ccttiivvee e

e l l f f e e R R iinngg lliisstteenn ttiiaall n n e e u u IInnffll aarryy m m

m m ssuu What happened? Can you tell me what happened? You feel angry when . . . . So you are angry/frustrated/disappointed that . . . . You think it is unfair when . . . . It seems like you are being picked on . . . So let me see if I have it right. So you are angry that . . . . . . and frustrated with . . . . . . . And when this happens (the issue in your words from what you have understood ................................................ while listening to the other person) .............................. REFERENCES Canter, L. & Canter, M.

(1976) Assertive discipline a take charge approach for todays educator. Santa Monica, CA Jones, Fred (2000) Tools for Teaching. Santa Cruz, CA: Frederick Jones and Associates. Kounin, Jacob S. (1970) Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. CLASS RULES No talking when the teacher is talking Stay in your seats Keep your hands & feet off other people and their property Follow the instructions given by the teacher

CLASS CONSEQUENCES st st 1st1incident onon board - 1-st1warning incidentname name board warning nd nd 2nd2incident ticktick - 2-nd2warning incident warning 3rd incident tick - stayrdback after class rd

3 incident tick - 3 warning th 4 timeafter detention 4th incident incident tick tick -- lunch stay back class th 5 interview with head 5th incident incident tick tick -- leave lunch the timeclass, detention teacher/AP 6th incident tick - leave the class, interview with head teacher/AP

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