Bonding Lewis structures Page 52 in notebook Chemical
Bonding Lewis structures Page 52 in notebook Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions
Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding Polar Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds The greater the difference in electronegativity,
the more polar is the bond. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Lewis Structures Lewis structures are representations of molecules showing all electrons, bonding and nonbonding.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures PCl3 5 + 3(7) = 26 1. Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the
polyatomic ion or molecule. If it is an anion, add one electron for each negative charge. If it is a cation, subtract one electron for each positive charge.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures 2. The central atom is the least electronegative element that isnt hydrogen. Connect the outer atoms to it by single bonds. Keep track of the electrons:
26 - 6 = 20 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures 3. Fill the octets of the outer atoms. Keep track of the electrons: 26 - 6 = 20; 20 - 18 = 2 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Writing Lewis Structures 4. Fill the octet of the central atom. Keep track of the electrons: 26 - 6 = 20; 20 - 18 = 2; 2 - 2 = 0 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures
5. If you run out of electrons before the central atom has an octet form multiple bonds until it does. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. PRACTICE ON PAGE 51 METHANE (CH4)
OXYGEN GAS CH2O water Writing Lewis Structures Then assign formal charges. For each atom, count the electrons in lone pairs and half
the electrons it shares with other atoms. Subtract that from the number of valence electrons for that atom: the difference is its formal charge. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Writing Lewis Structures The best Lewis structure is the one with the fewest charges. puts a negative charge on the most
electronegative atom. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Resonance But this is at odds with the true, observed structure of ozone, in which both O-O bonds are
the same length. both outer oxygens have a charge of -1/2. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Resonance One Lewis structure cannot accurately depict a molecule like ozone.
We use multiple structures, resonance structures, to describe the molecule. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Resonance In truth, the electrons that form the second C-O bond in the double bonds below do not always sit between
that C and that O, but rather can move among the two oxygens and the carbon. They are not localized; they are delocalized. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Resonance The organic compound benzene, C6H6, has two resonance structures.
It is commonly depicted as a hexagon with a circle inside to signify the delocalized electrons in the ring. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Exceptions to the Octet Rule There are three types of ions or molecules
that do not follow the octet rule: Ions or molecules with an odd number of electrons Ions or molecules with less than an octet Ions or molecules with more than eight valence electrons (an expanded octet) 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Odd Number of Electrons
Though relatively rare and usually quite unstable and reactive, there are ions and molecules with an odd number of electrons. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Fewer Than Eight Electrons Consider BF3: Giving boron a filled octet places a negative charge on
the boron and a positive charge on fluorine. This would not be an accurate picture of the distribution of electrons in BF3. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Fewer Than Eight Electrons Therefore, structures that put a double bond between boron and fluorine are much less important than the one that leaves boron with only 6 valence electrons.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Fewer Than Eight Electrons The lesson is: if filling the octet of the central atom results in a negative charge on the central atom and a positive charge on the more electronegative outer atom, dont fill the octet of the central atom.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. More Than Eight Electrons The only way PCl5 can exist is if phosphorus has 10 electrons around it. It is allowed to expand the octet of atoms on the 3rd row or below. Presumably d orbitals in
these atoms participate in bonding. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. More Than Eight Electrons Even though we can draw a Lewis structure for the phosphate ion that has only 8 electrons around the central phosphorus, the better structure puts a double bond between the phosphorus and one of the oxygens.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. PRACTICE ON PAGE 51 ICl4- Can NCl5 exist? Why or why not? Molecular Shapes
The shape of a molecule plays an important role in its reactivity. By noting the number of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs we can easily predict the shape of the molecule. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Molecular Geometry and VSEPR PAGE 54 IN NOTEBOOK What Determines the Shape of a Molecule? Simply put, electron pairs, whether they be bonding or nonbonding, repel each other. By assuming the electron
pairs are placed as far as possible from each other, we can predict the shape of the molecule. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Electron Domains The central atom in
this molecule, A, has four electron domains. We can refer to the electron pairs as electron domains. In a double or triple bond, all electrons shared between those two atoms
are on the same side of the central atom; therefore, they count as one electron domain. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) The best
arrangement of a given number of electron domains is the one that minimizes the repulsions among them. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Electron-Domain
Geometries These are the electron-domain geometries for two through six electron domains around a central atom. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Electron-Domain Geometries All one must do is count the number of electron domains in the Lewis structure. The geometry will be that which corresponds to the number of electron
domains. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Molecular Geometries The electron-domain geometry is often not the shape of the molecule, however. The molecular geometry is that defined by the positions of only the atoms in the molecules, not the nonbonding pairs.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Molecular Geometries Within each electron domain, then, there might be more than one molecular geometry. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Linear Electron Domain In the linear domain, there is only one molecular geometry: linear. NOTE: If there are only two atoms in the molecule, the molecule will be linear no matter what the electron domain is. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Trigonal Planar Electron Domain There are two molecular geometries: Trigonal planar, if all the electron domains are bonding, Bent, if one of the domains is a nonbonding pair. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Nonbonding Pairs and Bond Angle Nonbonding pairs are physically
larger than bonding pairs. Therefore, their repulsions are greater; this tends to decrease bond angles in a molecule. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Multiple Bonds and Bond Angles Double and triple bonds place greater
electron density on one side of the central atom than do single bonds. Therefore, they also affect bond angles. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Tetrahedral Electron Domain
There are three molecular geometries: Tetrahedral, if all are bonding pairs, Trigonal pyramidal if one is a nonbonding pair, Bent if there are two nonbonding pairs. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Trigonal Bipyramidal Electron Domain There are two distinct positions in this
geometry: Axial Equatorial 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Trigonal Bipyramidal Electron Domain Lower-energy conformations result from having nonbonding electron pairs in equatorial, rather
than axial, positions in this geometry. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Trigonal Bipyramidal Electron Domain There are four distinct molecular geometries in this domain:
Trigonal bipyramidal Seesaw T-shaped Linear 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Octahedral Electron Domain All positions are equivalent in the octahedral domain. There are three molecular geometries: Octahedral Square pyramidal Square planar
However, SPARQL makes no assumption to interpret statements in an RDF graph using negation as failure or some other non-monotonic assumption (e.g., closed world assumption). SPARQL (but also RDF and RDFS) make the Open World Assumption. Monotonicity of FOL Theorem....
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