Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator Vascular Access Educator

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator Vascular Access Educator

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator Vascular Access Educator Group of BC Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Acknowledgement Many of the slides in this presentation are used with permission from: Vascular Access Nursing Education Program Janet Graham, RN, MScN, CNeph(C) VA Coordinator, Ottawa Hospital Development of these slides were sponsored by AMGEN Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Match Cannulators and Accesses Skill Level of Cannulator

Access Rating Approved to Cannulate Novice Easy accesses: Established accesses with no complications AVFs in which buttonhole tracks are well established* Skilled Moderately complicated accesses: New accesses with no complications Established accesses with one complication AVFs in which buttonhole tracks are well established* Advanced Complicated accesses: All accesses (new & established; with or without complications) Established and new AVFs in which buttonhole tracks are already established or are being established*

*Refer to PPT on BH cannulation at www.bcrenalagency.ca Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Skilled Cannulators may Cannulate new accesses with no complications AVFs: 1st six weeks of cannulation AVGs: 1st two weeks of cannulation Cannulate moderately complicated accesses Accesses with one cannulation complication (e.g. difficult to palpate, deep, signs of edema, bruising or local infection) Cannulate buttonhole accesses with well established tracks Utilize portable ultrasound to assist cannulation (refer to PPT on Portable Ultrasound and Cannulation).

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Cannulating New Accesses Cartoon licensed for use from Jazz Communications Ltd., publishers of The Lighter Side of Dialysis.. To order a copy or more information please visit www.lightersideofdialysis.com or call 1-866-239-3279. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) When to Cannulate New Accesses AVFs: After adequate time (minimum 4 wks often longer) Signs show maturation has occurred Assessed by MD or VA RN as ready to needle Attempted by skilled or advanced cannulator only AVGs: No swelling in the access limb (minimum 2 wks)

Assessed by MD or VA RN as ready to needle Attempted by skilled or advanced cannulator only Rationale: Cannulation is a learned skill that improves with practice Cannulation done too early or on a problem access site may damage or result in loss of the access Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Procedure for Cannulating New Accesses Same steps as for established accesses but possibly trickier Physical assessment: LOOK! LISTEN! FEEL! Cannulation: Plan the site Prepare the site

Insert the needles Remove the needles Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Procedure for Cannulating New Accesses If patient is on heparin, contact MD to reassess heparin orders and heparin stop times (if protocols available, consult them). Reassess regularly during initial cannulations Use smallest available needle(s) for first several treatments; increase needle size gradually Start with slow pump speed for first several treatments; increase to target pump speed gradually If infiltrates, rest for 1 week; if infiltrates a 2 nd time, rest for 2 weeks; if it infiltrates a 3rd time, refer to MD

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Cannulation: New AVF, with CVC Week Treatment Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed 1 Arterial (CVC for venous) 1 17g

1 2 Arterial (CVC for venous) 1 17g 3 Arterial (CVC for venous) 1 17g 4 Venous (CVC for arterial) 1 17g

2 5 Venous (CVC for arterial) 1 17g 6 Venous (CVC for arterial) 1 17g 7 Arterial & venous 3 8

Arterial & venous 9 Arterial & venous 2 17g 2 17g 2 17g 200 200 250

200 200 250 200 - 250 200 - 250 200 - 250 Weeks Treatments Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed See notes below. 4-6

10 - 18 Arterial & venous 2 17g 16g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle 7-9 19 - 27 Arterial & venous 2 16g 15g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle See notes below. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) 10+ 28+ Arterial & venous

2 15g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle Cannulation: AVF, no CVC One Needle Option Week Treatment Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed 1 Single needle 1

17g Weeks Treatments Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed 1 2 Single needle 1 17g 3 Single needle 1 17g

4 Single needle 1 17g 2 5 Single needle 1 17g 6 Single needle 1 17g 7 Arterial & venous

2 17g 3 8 Arterial & venous 2 17g 9 Arterial & venous 2 17g 200 200 250

See notes under cannulation sequence for AVFs with functioning CVC in place. 4-6 7-9 10+ 10 - 18 19 - 27 28+ Arterial & venous Arterial & venous Arterial & venous 2

2 2 17g 16g 16g 15g 15g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle See notes under cannulation sequence for AVFs with functioning CVC in place.

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Weeks Cannulation: AVF, no CVC Two Needle Option Treatments Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed 4-6 7-9 10+ 10 - 18

19 - 27 28+ Arterial & venous Arterial & venous Arterial & venous 2 2 2 17g 16g 16g 15g 15g

Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle See notes under cannulation sequence for AVFs with functioning CVC in place. Weeks Treatments Needle location Needles Needle gauge Max blood pump speed 4-6 10 - 18 Arterial & venous

2 17g 16g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle 7-9 19 - 27 Arterial & venous 2 16g 15g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle 10+ 28+ Arterial & venous 2 15g Recommended pump speed for gauge of needle See notes under cannulation sequence for AVFs with functioning CVC in place.

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) AVG, with or without CVC Use two 16 gauge needles (one as the arterial source and one as the venous source) and a blood pump speed of 300 mL/min. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Desired Blood Pump Speed and Needle Gauge Once cannulation has been established, correlate needle gauge, blood pump speed, and clinical condition (Kt/V or PRU) Recommended Needle Gauge Desired Blood Pump Speed AVF AVG

<300 mL/min 17 g 16 g 300 350 mL/min 16 g 16 g 350 450 mL/min 15 g 15 g >450 mL/min 14 g

15 g Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Cannulating Complicated Accesses Cartoon licensed for use from Jazz Communications Ltd., publishers of The Lighter Side of Dialysis.. To order a copy or more information please visit www.lightersideofdialysis.com or call 1-866-239-3279. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Procedure for Cannulating Complicated Accesses Procedure is the same as for easy accesses but cannulation can be trickier Consult MD or VA Coordinator if:

Difficult to cannulate Unable to achieve a BPS of >300 mL/min by week 3 or <350 mL/min in established HD in 2 consecutive runs Low arterial or high venous pressure on 3 consecutive runs Unexplained, prolonged bleeding (>10 15 min) from cannulation site on 3 consecutive runs Signs of access complications Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Tips for Success with Complicated Accesses Wrap patient limb in warm blanket prior to cannulating (to achieve vasodilation) For fistulas, if access is hard to feel, apply a tourniquet (for

vasodilation) If access is hard to feel, use a stethoscope or doppler to listen for bruit & to ensure you are above the vessel. Needle where the sound is loudest Use a wet needle. Attach syringe with 5cc NS to the needle and flush saline through to the end of the needle prior to inserting (to prevent clotting) If cannulation problems occur, go back to small needle size. Increase needle size slowly Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Access Complications AVFs AVGs Early Failure Late Failure

Inadequate vein or artery used for creation Stenosis: arterial or venous Steal syndrome Juxta-anastomotic venous (JAV) stenosis Thrombosis Ischemic monomelic neuropathy Accessory veins Aneurysm Graft stenosis (venous) Inflow stenosis within

arterial system Infection Pseudoaneurysm Ischemic steal syndrome Thrombosis Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Early Fistulae Failure Inadequate vein or artery used for creation Juxta-anastomotic venous (JAV) stenosis* Accessory veins*

Inflow stenosis within arterial system Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Early Fistulae Failure Juxta-anastomic Venous (JAV) Stenosis Normal JAV Stenosis Thrill continuous & felt at the anastomosis Thrill only felt in systole Pulse easily compressible Strong pulse felt at anastomosis only; disappears quickly at site of stenosis Often felt as severe dip in vein or

shelf in vein Above area of stenosis, pulse is weak and vein may be small or difficult to palpate1 1Ball LK. Nephrol Nurs J 2005;32:611-17. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Stenosis at Arterial Anastomosis of Brachiocephalic AV Fistula Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Early AV Fistulae Failure: Accessory Veins

Visually examine fistula If veins not visible, fistula can be occluded distal to arterial anastomosis If thrill over anastomosis does not disappear, accessory veins may exist below area being occluded Continue procedure up vein to evaluate if accessory veins exist further on Accessory veins Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistula Failure

Stenosis: arterial or venous* Thrombosis* Aneurysm* Infection* Ischemic steal syndrome* Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistula Failure: Venous Stenosis or Occlusion Most common location is at arterial anastomosis Cause-Theory: Manipulation and mobilization of vein at time of surgery Trauma and stretching of vein during surgery Presents as: Arterial insufficiency-arterial pressure > limiting flow

Spasm Small underdeveloped fistula Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistula Failure: Venous Stenosis or Occlusion Stenosis may occur anywhere along vein Causes: Repeated needling causing scar tissue Site of previous intravenous or phlebotomy causing scarring of vein Site of previous hematoma Central stenosis from current or past central catheter, PICC catheter insertion or pace maker (can present as swelling of arm or breast) Deep vein thrombosis unrelated to central catheter insertion

Increased turbulence from arterialization of a vein (theory) Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistula Failure: Venous Stenosis or Occlusion Normal Mature Fistula Soft pulse Venous Stenosis Firm and pulsatile proximal to stenosis Easily compressed Portion of vein peripheral to stenosis stays distended and central portion of vein collapses Collapses partially or completely when arm or leg

elevated Aneurysmal dilatations often appear below stenotic site Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistula Failure: Venous Stenosis or Occlusion Parameter Normal Stenosis Thrill -Only at arterial

anastomosis -At site of stenotic lesion Pulse -Soft, easily compressible -Water hammer Bruit -Low pitched -Continuous -Diastolic and systolic -High pitched -Discontinuous -Systolic only

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Diagnosis of Stenosis or Occlusion in Fistula Fistulogram Puncture fistula with small gauge needle Inject contrast Visualize fistula from arterial anastomosis to central veins Reflux of contrast into artery during injection necessary to examine arterial anastomosis and arterial limb Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Stenosis in the Cephalic Vein of a Radiocephalic AV Fistula Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017)

Stenosis in Basilic Vein Between Aneurysmal Dilations Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Multiple Areas of Stenosis in Radiocephalic Fistula Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Management of Stenosis in AV Fistulae Venous stenoses do not respond as well to angioplasty as

arterial stenoses Guidelines recommend treatment of stenosis 50% reduction of normal vessel diameter accompanied by hemodynamic, functional or clinical abnormality Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Management of Stenosis in AV Fistulae with Angioplasty Short vascular sheath inserted Guidewire advanced into fistula Normal vein proximal to stenosis or distal to post-stenotic dilatation measured Angioplasty balloons inflated for ~ 20 30 seconds Balloon removed and another angiogram performed

If residual stenosis > 30%, angioplasty repeated with larger balloon Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Pre- and Post-angioplasty of Severe Stenosis above Arterial Anastomosis in Radiocephalic Fistula Areas of arterial anastomosis Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistulae Failure: Thrombosis In most patients, thrombosis is the final complication after a period of AV fistula dysfunction

Treatment should start as early as possible Delay may increase risk of progressive growth of thrombus and future thrombotic events Early intervention increases chance that same AV fistula can be used for future dialysis Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Treatment of Thrombosed AV Fistulae Three options available: Surgical thrombectomy +/- revision Mechanical thrombectomy +/- angioplasty Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy with angioplasty Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Should a Thrombosed AV Fistula be Salvaged?

What caused the thrombosis? Does the fistula have a history of previous angioplasties? Is there history of central vein stenosis? If present, what size are the aneurysmal dilatations? What portion of the vein remains patent? Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Challenges of Thrombectomy Fistulae are thin walled Can be difficult to locate anastomosis and remove clot due to irregular anatomy Stenosis can be in artery or anywhere along vein, including central veins Stenosis is usually very severe fistulae can remain patent under low flows

Collateral veins can cause confusion when identifying main vein Large volume of clot may be present in aneurysmal dilatations Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistulae Failure: Aneurysm Formation Localized dilation of vein Over time, flow in fistula increases and vein enlarges Can develop upstream from venous stenosis Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017)

Later Fistulae Failure: Pseudoaneurysm Formation Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later Fistulae Failure: Aneurysm Formation Requires close monitoring for: Thinning of skin over fistula, often white and shiny Ulceration or non-healing needle sites Evidence of bleeding or difficulty with prolonged bleeding from a particular needle site Often the only treatment is surgery Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator

(Updated June 2017) Later Fistulae Failure: Infection Relatively rare May occur post-operatively over incision lines In mature fistulae, may present as: perivascular cellulitis with localized erythema swelling or tenderness, or as infected aneurysms abscesses from infected needle sites Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later AV Fistulae Failure: Ischemic Steal Syndrome Assess both hands and all digits for skin temperature gross sensation

signs of skin breakdown, tissue necrosis or infection range of motion presence and quality of radial and ulnar pulses numbness/tingling Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003; Malik J, et al. J Nephrol 2003;16:903-7. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Later AV Fistulae Failure: Ischemic Steal Syndrome Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Complications

Infection* Steal syndrome* Ischemic monomelic neuropathy* Graft stenosis (venous)* Pseudoaneurysm* Thrombosis* * = To be discussed in next section Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Infection: Assessment Superficial Deep Pustules (previous cannulation

sites) Erythema Cellulitis Swelling Inflammation +/- Pain +/- Pain Warmth Warmth, fever Elevated WBC count Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003.

Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Infection: Assessment & Treatment Assessment Infections may feel warm, but skin over functioning graft always warmer than normal Post-operatively: erythema, swelling and/or evidence of a hematoma may be confused with infection due to invasive tunneling Treatment Antibiotics and may require surgical removal Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Steal Syndrome: Assessment

Mild to severe numbness Tingling of hand Increased coolness of hand and digits Pale appearance of hand and digits Cyanosis Mild to severe pain of hands and digits Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Ischemic Monomelic Neuropathy: Assessment

Profound weakness of hand Severe pain and numbness Unable to feel palpation to hand, fingers No appearance of ischemia to hand Hand warm Radial and ulnar pulses same as in other hand This clinical presentation requires immediate surgical intervention Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis or Occlusion:

Assessment Normal Easily compressible pulse Stenosis As stenosis increases, pulse in graft stronger and pitch of bruit increases Continuous thrill palpable at arterial anastomosis Second thrill heard downstream from arterial anastomosis Low-pitched bruit continuous throughout systole and diastole and decreases as move up arm Thrill can be palpated at site of stenosis

High-pitched bruit heard only in systole: severe stenosis Swelling of upper or lower arm and/or hand or breast: central stenosis Collateral veins in chest wall: central stenosis Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis or Occlusion: Assessment Most common location is at venous anastomosis Cause-Theory: Neointimal hyperplasia smooth muscle proliferation and accumulation of extracellular matrix at site of venous

anastomosis Presents as: Increased venous pressure that can be flow limiting Roy-Chaudhury P, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:1112-27; Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis or Occlusion: Assessment May occur throughout graft or draining veins Causes: Repeated needling causing damage to AV Graft Central stenosis from current or previous central catheter, PICC catheter or pace maker, which can present as swollen arm or breast Previous venipuncture or intravenous of draining vein Roy-Chaudhury P, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:1112-27. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator

(Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis or Occlusion: Diagnosis Angiography Puncture graft with small gauge needle Inject contrast Visualize graft from venous anastomosis to central veins Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Stenosis in Draining Vein of AV Graft AV graft Janet Graham Stenosis in draining vein Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017)

Stenosis in Draining Basilic Vein of AV Graft Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Stenosis at Venous Anastomosis of AV Graft Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis: Treatment

Venous stenoses do not respond as well to angioplasty as arterial stenoses Guidelines recommend treatment of stenosis 50% reduction of normal vessel diameter accompanied by hemodynamic, functional or clinical abnormality Prospective surveillance plus correction improves patency and reduces incidence of thrombosis Jindal K, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:S16-23; National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for 2006 Updates: Vascular Access. Am J Kidney Dis 2006;48(suppl 1):S1-S322. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Graft Stenosis: Angioplasty Short vascular sheath inserted Guidewire advanced into graft Normal vein proximal to stenosis or distal to post-stenotic dilatation measured Angioplasty balloons inflated for ~ 20 30 seconds

Balloon removed and another angiogram performed Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Pseudoaneurysm: Assessment Palpation: dip or missing piece of graft felt Appears pulsatile Only thin skin and thin layer of fibrosed subcutaneous tissue at defect site Over time, graft will dilate at defect site and form pseudoaneurysm Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Pseudoaneurysm: Assessment & Treatment Assessment Monitor poorly healed needle sites

Will grow in size Can ulcerate and bleed spontaneously If thrombosed, clot can adhere to inside of pseudoaneurysm Surgery required when: Palpation of aneurysms twice normal diameter of graft Thin, shiny areas on graft that appear red Unhealed needle sites Necrotic areas Beathard G. Fistula First National Vascular Access Improvement Initiative. A Practitioners Resource Guide to Physical Examination of Dialysis Vascular Access. November 2003. Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017) Thrombosed Grafts: Treatment Surgical thrombectomy +/- revision Mechanical thrombectomy Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017)

Thrombosis in AV Graft Janet Graham Cannulation for the Skilled Cannulator (Updated June 2017)

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