Terrestrial Test Review Chapter 10 Land Use Public

Terrestrial Test Review Chapter 10  Land Use  Public

Terrestrial Test Review Chapter 10 Land Use Public Private Public & Private Land Use in US Public Land

25% of US land is owned by Federal Govt Mainly in western states & Alaska Forests Who manages National Forests? US Forest Service What goals Timber, grazing, recreation

Can you log in National Forests Does govt make money? Forests Fire Policy Fire suppression / Prescribed burns Benefits of forest fires Healthy Forests Initiative

Logging Timber Clear cutting Selective cutting Strip Cutting Tree plantations Rangeland Who manages BLM - Bureau of Land Management Goals

Grazing, mining, timber, recreation Can ranchers graze cattle Does fed govt make money What are risks of overgrazing National Parks Who Manages NPS National Park Service

Goals Preservation, Recreation, Conservation What use allowed Multi-use Balance Biodiversity Recreation Economic National Wildlife Refuges

Who manages FWS Fish and Wildlife Service Goals Wildlife conservation Allowed use hunting, recreation National Wilderness Area Who manages

Created from other public land Managed by original agency Goals Preserve large tracts of intact land Allowed use Limited human use Roadless Logging, mining banned

Federal Regulation Endangered Species Act FWS Fish and Wildlife Service NEPA National Environmental Policy Act Protects national resources EIS Environmental Impact Statement Scope, purpose, alternate approaches, analyze impact,

submit mitigation plan how to address impact Size, Shape, Connectedness of Protected areas Island of Biogeography Does it apply to land Corridors What are they, are they needed, what benefit Fragmentation

Edge Habitat Beneficial? Biosphere Reserves Residence land is expanding

Fastest growing Urban sprawl Urban blight Zoning Smart growth Eminent Domain Sustainable Use

Externalities Maximum sustainable yield Tragedy of the Commons Protect Focus on species or habitat Human demands on resources Restoration Remediation Mitigation

Prevention vs restoration Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flow Matter Recycling Disturbance Services Energy Flow Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

How efficient is photosynthesis? NPP (net productivity) Swamps & marshes, tropical rainforest, coral reef Trophic Levels Food chains & webs Producers, consumers, Scavengers, detritivores, decomposers Trophic Pyramids Ecological efficiency

10% transfer Matter Recycling Biogeochemical cycles Hydrologic Cycle Facilitates all the other biogeochemical cycles Essential to life of body weight is water Human impact Harvesting trees reduces transpiration

that will increase runoff or infiltration on steep slope, most water will runoff, increasing erosion, flooding, mudslides Paving over land for houses, parking lots, roads water runs fastercant soak in reduces infiltration, increasing runoff and evaporation increases flooding risk Irrigation diverting water from one area to another Colorado River rarely reaches the ocean

Water Cycle 1. 2. 3. 4. Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Runoff

Infiltration Taken up by plants Transpiration Evaporation Carbon cycle Fast and Slow cycles 1. Photosynthesis & Biomass growth - absorbing 2. Respiration & Decomposition - releasing 3. Buried 4. Extraction & Combustion

5. Exchange with other sinks or reservoirs Sinks (or reservoirs) & Flows (or Fluxes) carbon budget wksh 1. Marine sediments & rocks (& shells) 2. Oceans (dissolved) 3. Fossil Fuels 4. Soil organic matter 5. Forests Increasing CO2 Burning fossil fuels

Deforestation Trees cant remove by photosynthesis Carbon stored in trees biomass will be released CARBON CYCLE Nitrogen Cycle Main Nitrogen sink atmosphere Limiting factor

nutrient for producers (terrestrial) Sources Natural: bacteria & lightening fixation, decomposition Fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, denitrification Anthropogenic synthetic fertilizers, burning fossil fuels especially from tail pipes of cars Problems Contaminating waterways eutrophication

Air pollution - smog Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Slowest cycle No gas phase Insoluble in water often limiting factor for plant/producer growth especially in aquatic ecosystems

Main sink/reservoir Locked up in sedimentary rocks Sources Natural: weathering rocks, upheaval from geological events, sea birds, decomposition of organisms Anthropogenic: synthetic & mined Main problem eutrophication

Phosphorous Cycle: Algae Blooms Hypoxic Dead Zones Nitrogen & Phosphorus are both fertilizers

Eutrophication Algae Blooms Hypoxic Dead Zones Sulfur Cycle Gas SO2 Anthropogenic source burning coal Natural source

volcanoes, hot springs, weathering rocks Main problem acid rain Acid Rain acids, bases, and pH 1 Point movement on pH scale = factor of 10 2 point movement = factor of 100

Normal rain water pH = 5.6 Acid rain pH= 4.5 or lower Disturbance How affects flow of energy & matter Forests, grasslands, other terrestrial biomes increase retention of nutrients on land

Natural Anthropogenic High, Low, vs Medium disturbance Resistance How big an effect of disturbance on overall flow of energy & matter Resilience

How quick to return to original condition Ecosystem Services Instrumental Value Provisions Raw materials Regulating services Storing carbon, nutrients, water Support systems

Pollinate crops, filter pollutants Cultural services Aesthetic, intellectual, scientific, recreation, Intrinsic Value Independent of any benefit to humans Chapter 4 Terrestrial Biomes Be able to identify characteristics

Be able to locate on map Tropic of Cancer Equator High mountains Polar ice Polar grassland (arctic tundra) Temperate grassland Tropical grassland (savanna)

Tropic of Capricorn Chaparral Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical forest Desert Fig. 5-9, p. 106

Biomes: Large regions categorized by: Climate (Temp & Precipitation) Soil Plant (& animals to lesser degree) Similar changes occur moving from: the equator to the poles: Latitude lowlands to mountaintops: Elevation

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