1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 14th Edition A Study of

1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 14th Edition A Study of

1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 14th Edition A Study of Interrelationships Chapter 2 Environmental Ethics Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Outline 2.1 The Call for a New Ethic 2.2 Environmental Ethics 2.3 Environmental Attitudes 2.4 Environmental Justice 2.5 Societal Environmental Ethics

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3 Outline (Continued) 2.6 Corporate Environmental Ethics 2.7 Individual Environmental Ethics 2.8 The Ethics of Consumption 2.9 Personal Choices 2.10 Global Environmental Ethics Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4

Of Sea Lions and Salmon: An Environmental and Ethical Dilemma Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5 2.1 The Call for a New Ethic A lot of what we do on our home planet connects us to something or somebody else. Managing the interactions between people and their environment has been transformed by unprecedented increases in the rate, scale, and complexity of the interactions. Across the world, thousands of people believe that todays environmental

challenges must be met with a new and more robust environmental ethic. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 2.2 Environmental Ethics Ethics is one branch of philosophy; it seeks to define what is right and what is wrong. Ethics can help us understand what actions are wrong and why they are wrong. Environmental ethics apply ethical thinking to the natural world and the relationship between humans and the earth. Despite the presence of some differences, there are many cases in which

ethical commitments can and should be globally agreed upon. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7 2.2 Environmental Ethics Very generally, environmental ethics considers three key approaches. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

8 2.2 Environmental Ethics In the most general sense, environmental ethics invites us to consider three key approaches: 1. The Earth and its creatures have moral status and are worthy of our ethical concern. 2. The Earth and its creatures have intrinsic value, meaning that they have moral value merely because they exist, not only because they meet human needs. 3. Based on the concept of an ecosystem, human beings should consider wholes that include other forms of life and the environment. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9

Conflicting Ethical Positions Sometimes an individuals ethical commitments can conflict with each other. A mayor might have an ethical commitment to preserving land in a city but also have an ethical commitment to bringing in jobs associated with construction of a new factory. In many cases, what is good for the environment is also good for people. While forest protection may reduce logging jobs, a healthier forest might lead to new jobs in recreation, fisheries, and tourism.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 10 The Greening of Religion Environmental issues were considered to be the concern of scientists, lawyers, and policy makers. What is our moral responsibility toward future generations? The natural world figures prominently in the worlds major religions. http:// w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/docume

nts/papa-francesco_20150524_enciclica-laudato-si.html Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 11 The Greening of Religion Religious leaders recognize that religions, as shapers of culture and values, can make major contributions to the rethinking of our current environmental impasse. The National Religious Partnership for the Environment (NRPE) was founded in 1993 to weave the mission of care for Gods creation across all areas of organized religion.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 12 Three Philosophical Approaches to Environmental Ethics Anthropocentrism Biocentrism Ecocentrism Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 13 Three Philosophical Approaches to Environmental Ethics

A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect. Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac, 1949 Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 14 Other Philosophical Approaches Other areas of philosophical thought address

environmental issues: Ecofeminism Social ecology Deep ecology Environmental pragmatism Environmental aesthetics Animal rights/welfare Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15 2.3 Environmental Attitudes Because ethical commitments pull in different directions at

different times, it is often easier to talk in terms of environmental attitudes or approaches. The three most common attitudes/approaches are: Development approach Preservation approach Conservation approach Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 16 2.3 Environmental Attitudes Development, preservation, and conservation are

different attitudes toward nature. These attitudes reflect a persons ethical commitments. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17 Development This approach is the most anthropocentric. It assumes the human race is, and should be, master of nature. It assumes that the Earth and its resources exist solely for our benefit and pleasure.

This approach is reinforced by the capitalist work ethic. This approach thinks highly of human creativity and holds that continual economic growth is a moral ideal for society. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18 Preservation This approach is the most ecocentric. It holds that nature has intrinsic value apart from human uses. Preservationists such as John Muir, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman all viewed nature as a refuge from economic activity, not as a resource for it. Some preservationists wish to keep large parts of nature intact for

aesthetic or recreational reasons (anthropocentric principles). Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19 Conservation This approach finds a balance between unrestrained development and preservationism. Conservationism promotes human well-being but considers a wider range of long-term human goods in its decisions about environmental management. Many of the ideas in conservationism have been incorporated into an approach known as sustainable development.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 20 Sustainable Development Sustainable Development is a middle ground that seeks to promote development while still preserving the ecological health of the landscape. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

21 2.4 Environmental Justice In 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined environmental justice as fair treatment, meaning: No group of people, including racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies. Environmental justice is closely related to civil rights.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22 2.4 Environmental Justice Studies show that the affluent members of society generate most of the waste, while the impoverished members tend to bear most of the burden of this waste. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

23 2.4 Environmental Justice Environmental justice encompasses a wide range of issues, including: Where to place hazardous and polluting facilities Transportation Safe housing, lead poisoning, and water quality Access to recreation Exposure to noise pollution Access to environmental information Hazardous waste cleanup Exposure to natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Katrina) http://ejscreen.epa.gov/mapper/

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 24 2.5 Societal Environmental Ethics Western societies have long acted as if the earth has: Unlimited reserves of natural resources. An unlimited ability to assimilate wastes. A limitless ability to accommodate unchecked growth. Until the last quarter of the 20th century, economic growth and resource exploitation were the dominant orientations toward the natural environment in industrialized societies. Things have now started to change.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 25 2. 6 Corporate Environmental Ethics Corporations are legal entities designed to operate at a profit. Although a corporations primary purpose is to generate a financial return for its shareholders, this does not mean that a corporation has no ethical obligations to the

public or to the environment. Shareholders can demand that their directors run the corporation ethically. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 26 Waste and Pollution The cost of controlling waste can be very important in determining a companys profit margin. Ethics are involved when a

corporation cuts corners in production quality or waste disposal to maximize profit without regard for public or environmental well-being. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 27 2.6 Corporate Environmental Ethics Because stockholders expect a return on an investment, corporations can be drawn toward

making decisions based on short-term profitability rather than long-term benefit to the environment or society. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 28 Is There a Corporate Environmental Ethic? Actions such as dumping waste in a river rather than installing a wastewater treatment facility or using expensive filters externalize the costs of doing business so that the public, rather than the corporation, pays those

costs. Greenwashing is a form of corporate misinformation where a company will present a green public image and publicize green initiatives that are false and misleading. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 29 Is There a Corporate Environmental Ethic? Corporations face real choices between using environmentally friendly or harmful production processes, and are facing more pressure to adopt more environmentally and socially responsible practices.

ISO 14000 CERES Principles GRIs Sustainability Reporting Guidelines Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 30 Green Business Concepts It makes little sense to preserve the environment if preservation causes economic collapse. Natural capitalism is the idea that businesses can both expand their profits and take good care of the environment. The 3M Company is estimated to have saved up to $500 million

over the last 20 years through its Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 31 Green Business Concepts Industrial ecology links industrial production and environmental quality. It models industrial production and biological production, forcing industry to account for where waste is going. In nature, nothing is wasted or discarded; all materials ultimately get

reused. A pollutant is a resource out of place. Good environmental practices are good economics. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 32 Green Business Concepts The triple bottom line has been referred to as the ethical criteria for business success. It includes social, environmental, and financial concerns. People

Profit Planet Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 33 2.7 Individual Environmental Ethics Ethical changes in society and business must start with individuals. We must recognize that our individual actions have a bearing on environmental quality and that each of us bears some responsibility for the quality of the environment in which we live. Many individuals want the environment cleaned up, but do not want

to make the necessary lifestyle changes to make that happen. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 2.8 The Ethics of Consumption North Americans represent 5% of the worlds population. North Americans consume one-fourth of the worlds oil. They use more water and own more cars than anybody else. They waste more food than most people in sub-Saharan Africa eat. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 35

2.8 The Ethics of Consumption Food Fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crops have more than doubled world food production in the past 40 years. Food distribution, not food production, is the cause of hunger. Energy At current rates of consumption, known oil reserves will not last through the current century. Foresighted energy companies are looking ahead by investing in the technologies that will replace fossil fuels. Nuclear power, solar, wind, wave, and biomass technologies are meeting increasing proportions of national energy needs in other countries.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 36 2.8 The Ethics of Consumption Water Currently humans use about half the planets accessible supply of renewable, fresh water. More than any other resource, water may limit consumerism in the next century. Wild Nature Every day in the U.S., between 1000 and 2000 hectares of farmland and natural areas are permanently lost to development. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

37 2.9 Personal Choices Individuals can make many lifestyle changes that significantly reduce their personal impact on the planet. Eating food produced locally, that is low on the food chain, and is grown with a minimum of chemical fertilizers and pesticides reduces the environmental impact of food production. Buying durable consumer products and reusing or repairing products with usable life reduces the raw materials that must be extracted from the ground. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

38 2.9 Personal Choices Conserving energy at home and on the road can lessen the amount of fossil fuels used to support your lifestyle. Living in town rather than in the suburbs can reduce your impact on the environment. Lobbying for protection of wild areas and voting for officials who take environmental issues seriously are other ways you

can contribute to a reduced environmental impact. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 39 2.10 Global Environmental Ethics Ecological degradation in any nation inevitably impinges on the quality of life in others. Much of the current environmental crisis is rooted in the widening gap between rich and poor nations. Environmental ethics suggests that we may have an obligation beyond minimizing the harm we cause to our fellow human citizens.

It suggests we may also have an obligation to minimize the harm we cause to the ecological systems and the biodiversity of the Earth itself. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 40 Summary Different cultures put different values on the natural world and the individual organisms that compose it. Environmental ethics investigates the justifications for these different positions. Three common attitudes toward nature are the development approach, the preservationist approach, and the conservationist approach.

Ethical obligations toward the environment are usually closely connected to ethical obligations toward people, particularly poor people and minority groups. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 41 Summary Recognition that there is an ethical obligation to protect the environment can be made by corporations, individuals, nations, and international bodies. Natural capitalism and industrial ecology are ideas that promote ways of doing profitable business while also protecting the environment.

Global commitments to the protection of the environment are enormously important. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • PHYSICAL SCIENCE 8TH GRADE WEEK AT A GLANCE

    PHYSICAL SCIENCE 8TH GRADE WEEK AT A GLANCE

    -Graphic Organizer foldable on three principles of fluids. Evaluate-Formative 5 questions. INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES. Activating Strategy- 3-2-1on Fluid Behavior. Graphic . Organizer -3 Principles of Fluids. Visual . Interactive -Titanic sinking clip. Study Jams video with questions.
  • Little Albert  (Watson and  Raynor 1924)   BANG   BANG

    Little Albert (Watson and Raynor 1924) BANG BANG

    Little Albert (Watson and Raynor 1924) BANG BANG . Title: Slide 1 Author: Teesdale School Last modified by: Rowe Created Date: 1/30/2009 12:41:13 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: Laptops for Teachers Other titles:
  • Your Agency D A O R E G

    Your Agency D A O R E G

    The Blazer sped away and the driver has not been identified. ROAD RAGE Brian Jenkins, 35, of Tampa, told police he became irate when he was cut off in traffic at Henderson and Nebraska Avenue at 3:45 P.M. by an...
  • Virtuoso: Distributed Computing Using Virtual Machines Peter A.

    Virtuoso: Distributed Computing Using Virtual Machines Peter A.

    Overall Steps Low level inter-VM traffic monitoring within VNET Compute rows and columns of traffic matrix for local VMs Reduction to a global inter-VM traffic load matrix Matrix denoising to determine application topology Offline to online Traffic Monitoring and Reduction...
  • CAP6135: Malware and Software Vulnerability Analysis Buffer Overflow

    CAP6135: Malware and Software Vulnerability Analysis Buffer Overflow

    This will show where the return address is saved Return address is in Register EIP Calling stack pointer is in Register EBP x &variable: show the address and value of a local variable (in hex format) x address: print binary...
  • Jegyzőkönyv beszámoló

    Jegyzőkönyv beszámoló

    Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem Áramlástan Tanszék Méréselőkészítő óra II. Előadók: Nagy László [email protected]
  • Revolution: Romanticism to Realism

    Revolution: Romanticism to Realism

    Revolution: Romanticism to Realism Agenda Bell Ringer: Who am I? Very quick lecture: Romanticism and Revolution Chart interpretation: Romanticism vs Impressionism vs Realism Literary analysis: Comparing Romanticism to Realism Image analysis: The changing paintings of the era. Review Guide and...
  • Model  MBNQA (Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) Organizational

    Model MBNQA (Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) Organizational

    Plan Do Check Act PDCA (ADLI) : Process Approach Approach A Deployment D Learning L Result Integration I Plan Do Check/Share/Act PDCA Alignment 1-6 Process Assessment : ADLI Integration I Level Le Trend T Compare C KRA KPI Goal Benchmark...