Offshore Wind J. McCalley Introduction structures and depth

Offshore Wind J. McCalley Introduction  structures and depth

Offshore Wind J. McCalley Introduction structures and depth Most existing off-shore wind today is in shallow water. 2 M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. Introduction structures and depth Foundation technology for offshore

wind can borrow much from designs of oceanbased oil and gas wells. Technology White Paper on Wind Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program, U.S. Department of the Interior 3 May 2006, http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/documents/docs/OCS_EIS_WhitePaper_Wind.pdf. Introduction shallow water foundations Three types of foundations used in shallow water: Least common Most common 4 Introduction shallow water foundations

5 M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. Introduction transitional depth foundations 30-90m depths 6 M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. Introduction deep water foundations 7 Introduction deep water foundations >60m depths

8 M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. Overnight cost 9 www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/assumptions/pdf/table_8.2 LCOE Offshore wind 10 LCOE

11 Annual MW Cumulative MW Introduction EU growth in wind TOTAL EU OFFSHORE WIND AT END OF 2013 IS 6562 MW 12 European Wind Energy Association, The European offshore wind industry key trends and statistics 2013, January 2014, http://www.ewea.org/statistics/offshore/. Introduction - Cumulative offshore capacity @ 2013 End # of turbines, % MW

% MW DONG Denmark Vattenfall Sweden E.ON Germany Centrica UK SSE Ireland RWE - Germany BARD Germany Statoll Statkraft - UK % MW 13 % MW European Wind Energy Association, The European offshore wind industry key trends and statistics 2013, January 2014, http://www.ewea.org/statistics/offshore/. Introduction - 2013 offshore capacity

# of turbines, % MW added in 2013 % MW added in 2013 DONG Denmark BARD Germany Centrica - UK SRIW Belgium Colruyt Belgium EDF - France E.ON Germany RWE Germany Alstom - France MW and % MW added in 2013 14 % MW added in 2013 European Wind Energy Association, The European offshore wind industry key

trends and statistics 2013, January 2014, http://www.ewea.org/statistics/offshore/. Life cycle costs Turbine cost (including tower) is 1/3 (lower than inland wind) Support structure is 1/4 (higher than foundation for inland wind) Grid connection is significant (higher than inland wind) O&M is 1/4 (higher than inland wind) Offshore wind may scale better than inland wind 15 M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http:// www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf.

Average size of turbines and wind farms (added in each year) (added in each year) 16 European Wind Energy Association, The European offshore wind industry key trends and statistics 2013, January 2014, http://www.ewea.org/statistics/offshore/. US Wind Resource US offshore wind resource at 90 m above the surface 9m/s 3m/sfor 17 M. Schwartz, D. Heimiller, S. Haymes, and W. Musial, Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources the United States, NREL/TP-500-45889, June 2010, at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/45889.pdf.

US Coastal and Great Lakes Bathymetry Bathymetry: The measurement of depth of water in oceans, seas, or lakes. The East coast and the Gulf of Mexico have extensive areas of shallow water relatively far from shore. On the West coast, the continental shelf descends rapidly into the deep water category. The water depth also increases rapidly away from shore around Hawaii. In the Great Lakes region, Lake Erie and portions of Lake Ontario can be characterized as shallow;

the other lakes are primarily deep water, with narrow bands of shallow and transitional water near the shore. 18 M. Schwartz, D. Heimiller, S. Haymes, and W. Musial, Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States, NREL/TP-500-45889, June 2010, at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/45889.pdf. US Coastal and Great Lakes Bathymetry From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 19 NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, U.S. Coastal Relief Model, Retrieved date goes here, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/coastal/crm.html Offshore wind resource by wind speed, water depth, distance from shore

Arrows in table indicate influences that decrease offshore wind LCOE. 1 n.m. = 1.15077 mi 1 n.m. = 1.852 km These are for Georgia, but the below reference has similar data for all coastal states and great lakes. 20 M. Schwartz, D. Heimiller, S. Haymes, and W. Musial, Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States, NREL/TP-500-45889, June 2010, at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/45889.pdf. Offshore wind resource by wind speed, water depth, distance from shore 1 n.m. = 1.15077 mi 1 n.m. = 1.852 km These are for Oregon, but the below reference has similar data for all

coastal states and great lakes. 21 M. Schwartz, D. Heimiller, S. Haymes, and W. Musial, Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States, NREL/TP-500-45889, June 2010, at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/45889.pdf. Average water depth and distance to shore of online, under construction & consented wind farms 22 European Wind Energy Association, The European offshore wind industry key trends and statistics 2013, January 2014, http://www.ewea.org/statistics/offshore/. Horns Rev Wind Farm - Denmark J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. The wind farm is

located at the Danish west coast and is sited 14-20 km offshore in the North Sea, connected to shore with AC at 150 kV.a single 150 kV sub sea-power cable is in operation. Since the turbines are connected with 34 kV, an additional platform with the 34 to 150 kV transformer was necessary. North Sea! M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. 23

34 to 150 kV transformer North Sea Offshore, Existing & Under construction, 7/2011 Under cnstrctn EXISTING Of 2913 MW EU offshore, 1866 MW is in North Sea 24 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at

North Sea Offshore Potential 25 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at North Sea Offshore Potential (both shallow and deep water) (mainly deep water) (mainly shallow water) (little shallow or deep water 26 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at

Interactions between sea use functions 27 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at Typical offshore layout M. Robinson and W. Musial, Offshore wind technology overview, October 2006, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy07/40462.pdf. J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. An excellent tutorial on cable-laying is given here: http:// www.iscpc.org/publications/About_S

ubPower_Cables_2011.pdf 28 and is stored in my resource file. DC-thyristor vs DC-VSC HVDC transmission uses either thyristor-based converters or voltage source converters (VSC). Most DC designs for offshore wind utilize VSC because VSC is more economic at these lower power ratings. 29 S. Meier, S. Norrga, H.-P. Nee, New voltage source converter topology for HVDC grid connection of offshore wind farms, at http://www.ee.kth.se/php/modules/publications/reports/2004/IR-EE-EME_2004_013.pdf. AC vs DC-thyristor vs DC-VSC Self-commutated voltage source converter AC

DC Line commutated current source converter. AC DC 30 M. Bahrman, HVDC Transmission Overview, . An interesting idea Wind farm PMG VSC

VSC AC Sea-bed transmission DC VSC AC On-shore power grid VSC DC AC

Wind turbine Wind farm PMG VSC AC Wind turbine 31 Sea-bed transmission On-shore power grid VSC

DC AC AC vs DC-thyristor vs DC-VSC AC requires no converter station but has high charging (capacitive) currents that become excessive for long distances. An important issue with AC is whether to step up to transmission voltage in the sea and then transport over high voltage or transport over lower (34.5 kV) voltage and step up to transmission inland. DC-thyristor has very high power handling capability but converter stations are expensive, and they have shortcircuit limitations and therefore locational constraints. DC-VSC (voltage-source converters) have lower powerhandling capabilities, but converter stations are less expensive and they have no short-circuit limitations and can therefore be located anywhere. 32 J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore

wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. AC vs DC-thyristor vs DC-VSC Switchgear & converters 33 J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. Losses vs. distance for different AC voltage Compare 132 kV to 34 kV for 100MW transmission

Power losses for HV (132 kV) and MV (34 kV) 34 Compare 132 kV to 34 kV for 250MW transmission Compare 132 kV to 34 kV for 50MW transmission J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. Breakover distances for AC vs DC I believe this is for net present worth of {investment + operating costs} but source does not say. But displayed concepts are right:

AC w/farm voltage transmission is only right for short distances at low power AC w/offshore transformation is right for medium distances at medium power DC is right for long distances or at high power transfer. 35 J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. STANDARD NETWORK TOPOLOGIES FARM-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION OFF-SHORE TRANSFORMATION RADIAL (STRING)

STAR This is similar to inland topologies, but here, the location of the step-up transformer is more influential in the economics of the design. 36 J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. Off-shore windfarms Costs, Reliability & Losses For large scale OWFs a combination of these basic layouts is commonly used, where several strings of turbines are connected to the shore connection point. Its advantages are the simpler cable laying pattern and the shorter cable lengths compared to a strictly star layout. The disadvantages occur with cable failure, because all the turbines

upward the failure site on a string have to be switched off and cannot be connected to the grid until the failure has been repaired. Especially during periods of harsh sea conditions in winter the required repair time can be months. Also the number of turbines which can be connected to a string is limited by the power carrying capability of the cable used. With growing turbine power output, the star connection offers the possibility to reduce cable losses by clustering small groups of turbines to high voltage transformer stations as shown in layout IV. Also in case of cable failure at a turbine connection only the single turbine where the failure occurred has to be switched off, the remaining turbines connected to the transformer platform can stay in operation. The big disadvantage is the required transformer platform. 37 J. Schachner, Power connections for offshore wind farms, MS thesis, TUDelft, 2004. Wake Interactions

Wakes behind wind turbines at Horns Rev 38 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at Off-shore wind farm siting In view of the recent findings on wakes within offshore wind farms and on wind speed deficits behind these wind farms, the WINDSPEED project considers that, within a defined area, only 30% of the total should realistically be occupied by wind farms. It is assumed that any large scale deployment of offshore wind will likely take the form of multiple wind farm clusters uniformly spaced, allowing adequate distance between each cluster to mitigate the impact of inter wind farm wake losses and the resulting lost production and wake turbulence loading The remaining 70% shall provide space for wind speed recovery and dissipation of wake turbulent energy, but also possibly permit some form of navigation throughout the area This provides opportunities for co-use/co-existence with other sea uses such as shipping and fishing. D is

turbine diameter. 39 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at North Sea HVDC Network? Decision-support system For those scenarios in which some form of offshore grid is assumed to develop the In the Deep and Grand Design scenarios the results from the DSS were used to define a number of potential OWE clusters along with onshore connection points. An offshore grid was then designed that interconnects these wind clusters and onshore connection points in such a way as to optimise the investment cost of the grid against the benefit it provides by increased trade opportunities and connections to the new offshore wind generation units.

40 K. Veum, L. Cameron, D. Hernando, M. Korpas, Roadmap to the deployment of offshore wind energy in the central & southern North Sea: 2020-2030, July 2011, at www.windspeed.eu/media/publications/WINDSPEED_Roadmap_110719_final.pdf. D. Huertas Hernando, M. Korpas, S. vsn Dyken, Grid Implications: Optimal design of a subsea power grid in the North Sea, WP6 Final Report D6.3, June 2011. Wind-motivated networks? Is there a multi-farm collection network problem that is general/common to both inland & offshore? LEVEL 2 Windfarm Windfarm Windfarm

MULTI-FARM COLLECTION NETWORK LEVEL 3 BACK BONE TRANSM ISSION LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 Windfarm MULTI-FARM COLLECTION NETWORK

Windfarm Windfarm Windfarm Windfarm 41 There would be differences in implementation, but design method may be very similar. High Capacity Transmission for Iowa 2010 SmartTransmission Study 2008 Joint Coordinated System Plan

sd 2011 MISO RGOS Study 2010 Green Power Express sd 2013 Rock Island Clean 42 GIS-based wind farm site potential Feasibility: land cvr, cities/towns, protected, FAA, exstng WF Feasible sites > 21 mi2; Sufficient wind>7m/s at 80m Each square is 5x5 miles; 8MW/mi2 (200MW/square) 927 squares are PINK (sufficient wind and feasible site) PINK: Sufficient wind speed; feasible area

BLUE: Sufficient wind speed; infeasible area BLACK: Insufficient wind speed; feasible area RED: Insufficient wind speed; 43 Iowa Transmission System with New Backbone Derived from public data: THICK PURPLE: 765 kV backbone IUB map, FERC filings, utility THICK RED: New 345kV websites, EIA, MTEP

Existing system model includes: transmission >100kV 319 transmission lines, 204 nodes, 99 loads, 81 generators, 40 wind farms 5 bordering states: gen/load represented at single node Backbone design: utilized MTEP-2011 plans + 765kV loop to connect wind intense areas with load centers in Iowa & eastward. 44 Wind Farm Site Identification Select sites to satisfy target GW level while minimizing {cost of turbines + cost of transmission} per MWhr. 10 GW Future

20 GW Future 30 GW Future 765kV Overlay 10GW 20GW 30GW New Capacity (MW) 4954 14956 24960

New Wind Farms (1 windfarm = 200MW square) 27 79 133 CF of New Wind 0.3824 0.3751 0.3708 Mean Distance (mi)

4.33 6.52 8.68 45 R2B Transmission Design Results Transmission designs for each cluster minimize investment costs while satisfying N-1 reliability constraints (20 GW future). A C D E

B F G H 46 R2B Transmission Design Results A B C D E F G H All

Wind Farms 15 11 13 9 11 5 6 6 76 765kV Overlay 20GW Scenario 345 161 345 ROW Paths Ccts 161 161

Sngle High Sngle Dble Dble Miles 19 24 10 4 0 3 2 109.1 13 20 6 0 0 6 1 61.4 18

25 10 1 0 6 1 93.5 12 15 9 0 0 2 1 66.2 17 17 17 0

0 0 0 120.3 6 9 3 0 0 3 0 48 8 10 4 2 0 1 1

49.3 7 11 3 0 0 4 0 42.9 100 131 62 7 0 25 6 590.7 A C D

E Circuit Miles 133.6 92.9 127.3 80.2 120.3 77.2 62.4 64.8 758.7 Cost $M 120.3 75 101.7

68 96.2 58.8 59.1 49.7 628.8 cct miles / $M/ct/mi Wind Farm 8.91 0.90 8.45 0.81 9.79 0.80 8.91 0.85 10.94 0.80

15.44 0.76 10.40 0.95 10.80 0.77 9.98 0.83 B F G H 47 Wind-motivated networks? Some thinking on novel designs:

48 T. Hammons, V. Lescale, K. Uecker, M. Haeusler, D. Retzmann, K. Staschus, S. Lepy, State of the Art in Ultrahigh-Voltage Transmission, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 2, February 2012. Wind-motivated networks? See 2012 class paper by Khondkar Hasan for an intersting hybrid offshore windhydrokinetic wind system design, with associated summarization of other hydrokinentic designs. 49

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