CSE211 Computer Organization and Design Lecture : 3

CSE211 Computer Organization and Design Lecture : 3

CSE211 Computer Organization and Design Lecture : 3 Tutorial: 1 Practical: 0 Credit: 4 Deepak Kumar (Asst. Professor, LPU) 1 Register Transfer and Micro-operations Overview Register Transfer Language Register Transfer

Bus and Memory Transfers Logic Micro-operations Shift Micro-operations Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit CSE 211 CSE211 Computer Organization and Design Lecture : 3 Tutorial: 1 Practical: 0 Credit: 4 Deepak Kumar (Asst. Professor, LPU) 3

Register Transfer and Micro-operations 4 Register Transfer Language Combinational and sequential circuits can be used to create simple digital systems. These are the low-level building blocks of a digital computer. Simple digital systems are frequently characterized in terms of the registers they contain, and the operations that are performed on data stored in them The operations executed on the data in registers are called microoperations e.g. shift, count, clear and load CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 5 Register Transfer Language

Internal hardware organization of a digital computer : Set of registers and their functions Sequence of microoperations performed on binary information stored in registers Control signals that initiate the sequence of microoperations (to perform the functions) CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 6 Register Transfer Language Rather than specifying a digital system in words, a specific notation is used, Register Transfer Language The symbolic notation used to describe the micro operation transfer among register is called a register transfer language For any function of the computer, the register transfer language can be used to describe the (sequence of) micro-operations Register transfer language A symbolic language

A convenient tool for describing the internal organization of digital computers in concise/precise manner. Can also be used to facilitate the design process of digital systems. CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 7 Register Transfer Language Registers are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by numbers (e.g., A, R13, IR) Often the names indicate function: MAR - memory address register PC - program counter IR - instruction register Registers and their contents can be viewed and represented in various ways A register can be viewed as a single entity:

MAR CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 8 Register Transfer Language Designation of a register - a register - portion of a register - a bit of a register Common ways of drawing the block diagram of a register Register Showing individual bits R1 15

0 R2 Numbering of bits CSE 211 7 6 5 15 4 3 2

1 8 7 PC(H) Subfields 0 0 PC(L) Register Transfer and Micro-operations 9 Register Transfer Language Copying the contents of one register to another is a register transfer A register transfer is indicated as R2 R1 In this case the contents of register R1 are copied (loaded) into

register R2 A simultaneous transfer of all bits from the source R1 to the destination register R2, during one clock pulse Note that this is a non-destructive; i.e. the contents of R1 are not altered by copying (loading) them to R2 CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 10 Register Transfer Language A register transfer such as R3 R5 Implies that the digital system has the data lines from the source register (R5) to the destination register (R3) Parallel load in the destination register (R3)

Control lines to perform the action CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 11 Control Functions Often actions need to only occur if a certain condition is true This is similar to an if statement in a programming language In digital systems, this is often done via a control signal, called a control function If the signal is 1, the action takes place This is represented as: P: R2 R1 Which means if P = 1, then load the contents of register R1 into register R2, i.e., if (P = 1) then (R2 R1) CSE 211

Register Transfer and Micro-operations 12 Hardware Implementation of Controlled Transfers Implementation of controlled transfer P: R2 R1 Block diagram Control Circuit Load P R2 Clock n

R1 t Timing diagram t+1 Clock Load Transfer occurs here The same clock controls the circuits that generate the control function and the destination register Registers are assumed to use positive-edge-triggered flip-flops CSE 211 Register Transfer and Micro-operations 13

Basic Symbols in Register Transfer Symbols Description Examples Capital letters MAR, R2 & Numerals Parentheses () Denotes a part of a register R2(0-7), R2(L) Arrow Colon : Comma ,

Denotes transfer of information Denotes termination of control function Separates two micro-operations R2 R1 P: A B, B A CSE 211 Denotes a register Any Questions ? 14

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