ADVANCES ON SHEAR STRENGTH AND BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE

ADVANCES ON SHEAR STRENGTH AND BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE

ADVANCES ON SHEAR STRENGTH AND BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE GIRDERS WITH STEEL CORRUGATED WEBS Tuesday 17 Nov., 2015 HONDANI BRIDGE Dr. MOSTAFA FAHMI HASSANEIN Associate Professor Department of Structural Engineering; Faculty of Engineering; Tanta University, Tanta; Egypt Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Introduction 1. Advantages of corrugated web plates They have much higher buckling strengths. The own significant out-of-plane stiffness. They act as continuous stiffeners, so no need to use stiffeners. Their thickness is significantly reduced. Less weight of flat web plate with the same capacity Hamada et al. (1984) 9-13% Chan et al. (2002) 10.6%

Introduction 1. Advantages of corrugated web plates They have much higher buckling strengths. The own significant out-of-plane stiffness. They act as continuous stiffeners, so no need to use stiffeners. Their thickness is significantly reduced. Maupr Bridge Hondani Bridge Structural efficiency Aesthetical appearance Introduction 2. Interaction between shear and flexural behaviors Corrugated webs do not carry significant longitudinal stresses from the primary flexure of the girders and, consequently, the bending moment can reasonably be assumed to be carried totally by the flanges. Hamilton (1993) and Driver et al (2006) This is called the accordion effect and it is characterized by negligible axial stiffness. Therefore, the shear is carried entirely by the webs. Introduction 3. Elastic shear buckling Local buckling Global buckling cr, L cr,G Classical plate buckling theoryOrthotropic-plate buckling theory 1 ( cr , I ) n 1 ( cr , L ) n 1 ( cr ,G ) n

Lindner and Aschinger (1988) Interactive buckling cr, I Introduction 4. Interactive shear buckling stresses Several researches were conducted to find the best exponent n Paper Year Bergfelt and Leiva Yi et al. 1984 2008 El-Metwally Abbas et al. Hiroshi Sayed-Ahmed 1998 2002 2003 2005 Interactive shear buckling stress predictions 1 ( cr , I ) 1 ( cr , I ) 2 ( cr , L ) ( cr , L ) 2 ( cr , I ) 2 1 ( cr , I ) 4 ( cr , I ) 3 1 1

1 1 ( cr ,G ) 2 ( cr , L ) 2 1 ( cr , L ) 4 ( cr , L ) 3 ( cr ,G ) 1 1 1 1 1 ( y ) 2 1 ( cr ,G ) 2 1 ( cr ,G ) 4 1 ( cr ,G ) 3 1

( y ) 3 Introduction 5. Types of tapered web panels B.M.D. S.F.D. 1 2 3 4 6 5 II I III Direction of Tension Field Tension on tapered flange Compression on tapered flange Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Objectives 1. Research objectives is to provide additional data to engineers and the scientific community about the shear strength and behavior of: Prismatic bridge girders with corrugated webs. Tapered bridge girders with corrugated webs. In detail, to find the real behavior at the juncture between the corrugated web and the flanges of Prismatic girders. Never been studied provide new critical stress formula. suggest a more suitable strength than those available in literature.

Objectives 1. Research objectives: Continue is to provide additional data to engineers and the scientific community about the shear strength and behavior of: Prismatic bridge girders with corrugated webs. Tapered bridge girders with corrugated webs. In detail, to Investigate the effect of different junctures between the corrugated web and the flanges of Tapered girders. provide new critical stress formulas for different tapered typologies. get the appropriate design strengths of Tapered girders. Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Validation of FEM 1. Flat web plates 2 k E t w cr 2 12(1 ) hw Simple juncture k ss 9.34 2 Fixed juncture k sf 8.98 5.61 1.99 a 1.0 if

hw ( a hw ) 2 ( a hw ) 3 Validation of FEM 2. Prismatic girders with corrugated webs FE/ y 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 120 Exp 100 FE 80 G7A: Driver et al. (2006) 0 20 40 60 60 [Mpa]Mpa] 40 20 80 100 120 Deflection (mm)

0 M12: Moon et al. (2009) FE Exp M12: Moon et al. (2009) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Deflection (mm) Validation of FEM 3. Tapered girders with flat webs 450 400 350 300 250 200 [Mpa]Mpa] Bedyne k et al. (2013) 150 100 50 FE A Exp A FE B Exp B FE C

Exp C FE D Exp D 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Deflection (mm) 7 8 9 10 Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Parametric study tw Prismatic Prismatic hr b Plates Bridge

name Shinkai Matsnoki Hondani Cognac Maupre Dole IIsun Average c Tapered Tapered d b d Panels b [mm] 250 300 330 353 284 430 330 325 d [mm] 200 260 270 319 241 370 330 284 c [mm] 250 300 336 353 284

430 386 334 hr [mm] 150 150 200 150 150 220 200 174 Girders tw [mm] 9 10 9 8 8 10 18 10 hw [mm] 1183 2210 3315 1771 2650 2546 2292 2281 [] 36.9 30.0 36.5 25.2 31.9 30.7 31.2 32 Parametric study tw

Prismatic Prismatic hr b c Tapered Tapered d b d Plates Bridge name Shinkai Matsnoki Hondani Cognac Maupre Dole IIsun Average Girders b [mm] 250 300 330 353 284 430 330 325 d [mm] 200 260 270 319 241 370 330

284 c [mm] 250 300 336 353 284 430 386 334 hr [mm] 150 150 200 150 150 220 200 174 tw [mm] 9 10 9 8 8 10 18 10 hw [mm] 1183 2210 3315 1771 2650 2546 2292 2281 [] 36.9 30.0 36.5 25.2

31.9 30.7 31.2 32 Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Plates Plates 1. Effect of simple and fixed boundary conditions hw No. [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 [mm] [2] 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400

1400 1400 tw Buckling mode cr, FE [N/mm2] [mm] [3] 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 S F S F [8] L I I I I I I I I I G G G G [9]

L I I I I I I I I I I I I I [10] 366 612 889 1184 1489 1782 2085 351 578 818 1070 1329 1594 1864 [11] 377 636 932 1255 1579 1904 2235 354 590 853 1119 1391 1673 1962 Ave COV [10]/[11] [12] 0.97

0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.014 Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Plates Plates 2. Comparison with the available interactive critical stress (n=1.0) hw tw [mm] [mm] [2] 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 Simple Fixed Fixed

cr , FE / cr , I ,1 cr , FE / cr , I ,1 cr , FE / cr , I , 0.6 No. [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 kG=36 kG=31.6 kG=68.4 kG=59.2 kG=68.4 kG=59.2 [3] 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

[4] 1.12 1.08 1.04 0.99 0.95 0.90 0.86 1.13 1.10 1.05 1.01 0.98 0.95 0.94 [5] 1.13 1.09 1.05 1.01 0.97 0.92 0.89 1.14 1.12 1.08 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.98 [6] 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.67 0.66 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.56 [7] 0.69 0.67

0.65 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.68 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.59 [8] 0.83 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 [9] 0.85 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.90 0.94 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 Ave COV 1.12 0.130 1.17

0.149 0.67 0.066 n 0.6 0.70 0.076 cr , I , 0.6 0.99 cr , L . cr ,G1.05 0.131 0.150 ( cr , L ) 0.6 ( cr ,G ) 1 0.6 0.6 Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Panels Panels 3. Limit of fixed juncture when the flanges are rigid enough (tf / tw 3.0), shear failure mechanisms occurs. flange if they are relatively rigid (tf / tw < 3.0), the strength becomes controlled by the deformation of flanges. tw [mm] 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10

10 tf/tw 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 Ave COV RF/S RF/F hw=1.6m RF/S Relative critical stresses RF/F RF/S RF/F RF/S hw=1.8m hw=2.0m t f RF/F hw=2.2m RF/S RF/F hw=2.4m 1.00 0.99 web 1.01 0.99 1.01 t w 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.01 1.00 0.99 1.02 1.01 1.01 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.01 1.00 0.99 1.02 1.01 1.01 0.99 1.03 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.00 1.03 0.99 1.05 1.00 1.04 1.00 1.04 1.02 1.00 1.04 1.00 1.05 1.01 1.05 1.01 1.05 1.03 1.01 1.05 1.01 1.05 1.01 1.05 1.01 1.06 1.04 1.00 1.04 1.00 1.04 1.00 1.04 1.00 1.04 1.05 1.00 1.05 1.01 1.06 1.01 1.06 1.02 1.06 1.06 1.01 1.07 1.02 1.07 1.02 1.07 1.03 1.07 1.04 1.00 1.05 1.01 1.04 1.01 1.04 1.01 1.04 0.024 0.012 0.018 0.011 0.020 0.014 0.018 0.012 0.019

0.99 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.04 1.01 0.013 The realistic support condition at the juncture is nearly fixed for the case of (t f / tw 3.0). Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Panels Panels 4. Recommended validity limit of the proposed formula cr , L . cr ,G For cases of girders steel flanges having (tf / tw 3.0). cr , Iwith , 0.6 1 ( cr , L ) 0.6 ( cr ,G ) 0.6 0.6 In composite girders with Embedded shear connections. Embedded connections Ikeda and Sakurada (2005) Hondani Kurobegawa Bridge Bridge

Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Girders Girders 5. Comparison with available shear strengths Moon et al. n,M y Driver et al. 1.0 : s 0.6 1 0.614(s 0.6) : 0.6 s 2 1 2 : 2 s s . 2 cr ,L cr ,G n ,D Design 2PC bridges cr,Lmanual 2 crfor ,G with corrugated steel webs y hw k I1E3 t w 1 y 6 2 I ,3 s 1.05 Sause and Braxtan

n ,S Results and discussion Prismatic Prismatic--Girders Girders 5. Comparison with available shear strengths Girder (h - t ) w w 1600-6 1600-8 1600-10 1600-12 1800-6 1800-8 1800-10 1800-12 Failure modes I I I G I I I G Ave COV FE y 0.85 0.92 0.79 0.85 0.90 0.91 0.80 1.01 0.85 0.077 n,M y

0.86 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.86 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.066 n, D y 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.000 n,S y 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.000 n , M , 0. 6 y 0.91 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.99 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.051

if el 0.8 y inel 0.8 y el y Elgaaly et al. (1996) n, D , 0.6 y 1.80 2.86 4.02 5.27 1.70 2.66 3.71 4.81 3.00 1.150 n,S ,0.6 y 0.77 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.77 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.012 n, S ,0.6 FE 0.91 0.85 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.87 0.99 0.78 0.93 0.090 I , 0.6 Ave 0.54 I ,3 Results and discussion

Prismatic Prismatic--Girders Girders 5. Comparison with available shear strengths Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Plates Plates 1. Effect tapered web typology on interactive critical stress t w 6mm cr , FE cr , FE , P 5 degree 10 degree 15 degree 5 degree 10 degree 15 degree Case I Case II Case III Case IV Case I t w 14mm cr , FE cr , FE , P Case II Case I Case II Case III Case IV Case III Case IV Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Plates Plates 2. Proposed interactive critical stress of tapered webs The recommendation of the current design code for plated structural

elements EN 1993-1-5 (2007) to determine the ultimate shear resistance of tapered plate girders with flat web plates as prismatic ones CANNOT BE USED. cr ,Pr op cr , FE , P /(1 tan ) cr ,Pr op cr , FE , P /(1 tan ) Applicable for different boundary conditions Case I Case III cr ,Pr op 1.04 cr , FE , P /(1 tan ) cr ,Pr op 0.94 cr , FE , P /(1 tan ) Case II Case IV Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Girders Girders 3. Nonlinear strengths Parametric study results Type Case I ul , FE Buckling s [mm] [kN] y mode 6 0.683 944 I 0.96 8 0.533 1318 G 1.00 10 0.445 1693

G 1.03 12 0.386 2144 G 1.09 This means that neither the type of the axial 14 0.346 2619 G 1.14 in the 1097 inclined I flange1.12(tension or ul , FE 6force 0.696 8compression) 0.544 1619 1.23 nor theG direction of the 10 0.453 2010 G 1.23 developed tension field (short or on the long 12 0.394 2147 G 1.09 web diagonal) has any effect on1.00the strength 14 0.352 2295 F 6of these

0.602 0.66 girders652(Cases IIII and IV) 8 0.470 917 I 0.70 10 0.392 1146 G 0.70 12 0.341 1450 G 0.74 14 0.305 1686 G 0.73 6 0.624 634 I 0.64 8 0.487 894 I 0.68 10 0.406 1136 G 0.69 12 0.353 1397 G 0.71 14 0.316 1666 G 0.73 tw Vul , FE

Case II Case III Case IV / y 1.0 Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Girders Girders 4. Failure modes and stress distributions Case I Case II Case III Case IV Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Girders Girders 5. Comparison with available shear strengths Moon et al. n,M y 1.0 : s 0.6 1 0.614(s 0.6) : 0.6 s 2 1 2 : 2 s s Design manual for PC bridges with corrugated steel webs

s 1.05 Sause and Braxtan n ,S y hw kI E tw 1 y 6 2 I ,3 13 Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Girders Girders 5. Comparison with available shear strengths Type Case I Case II Case III Case IV tw [mm] s 6 8 10 12 14 6 8

10 12 14 6 8 10 12 14 6 8 10 12 14 0.683 0.533 0.445 0.386 0.346 0.696 0.544 0.453 0.394 0.352 0.602 0.470 0.392 0.341 0.305 0.624 0.487 0.406 0.353 0.316 Vul , FE [kN] 944 1318 1693 2144 2619 1097 1619 2010 2147 2295 652 917 1146

1450 1686 634 894 1136 1397 1666 Buckling mode I G G G G I G G G F I I G G G I I G G G ul , FE ul , M ul , S y ul , FE ul , FE 0.96 1.00 1.03 1.09 1.14 1.12 1.23 1.23 1.09 1.00 0.66 0.70 0.70 0.74 0.73 0.64 0.68 0.69 0.71

0.73 0.98 1.00 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.89 0.81 0.81 0.92 1.00 1.50 0.97 1.43 0.91 1.43 0.91 1.35 0.86 1.37 0.88 1.48 0.97 1.47 0.94 1.45 0.93 1.41 0.90 1.37 0.88 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.72 0.69 0.71 0.64 0.64 0.72 0.79 1.20 1.13 1.13 1.07 1.08 1.22 1.16 1.14 1.11

1.08 hwo / hw1 Results and discussion Tapered Tapered--Girders Girders 6. Recommended design shear strengths ul ,Pr op y 1.0 : s 0.6 CT 1 0.614( s 0.6) : 0.6 s 2 1 2 : 2 s s 1.0 CT hwo / hw1 Case I Case II Case III Case IV Introduction Objectives Validation of finite element models Contents Parametric study Results and discussion Recommendations Recommendations Recommendations New experimental results on girders with corrugated webs with real bridge dimensions should be conducted. New work should be made on checking the available buckling and design equations on all available bridge corrugated web profiles. An MSc is under preparation now by Elkawase, A.A. at Tanta University. The real behaviour of continuous tapered girders with corrugated webs , containing different web typologies, should be carried out by means of experimental tests. A thesis is under

preparation now by Hassanein and El Hadidy at Tanta University . Concentration on the behaviour of tapered girders behaviour should be made. A paper is under review now by Zevallos et al. (Zevallos, E., Hassanein, M.F., Real, E. Mirambell, E.) as a collaboration between Tanta University and Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, UPC of Spain. Recommendations Recommendations Composite girders with corrugated webs in negative bending moment zones should be checked by using fibre reinforced polymers. An MSc is under preparation know by Elshinrawy, T. at Tanta University. For more information: Hassanein, M.F., Kharoob O.F., (2015), "Linearly Tapered Bridge Girder Panels with Steel Corrugated Webs near Intermediate Supports of Continuous Bridges", Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 88, pp. 119-128. Hassanein, M.F., Kharoob O.F., (2014), Shear buckling Behavior of Tapered Bridge Girders with Steel Corrugated Webs, Engineering Structures, Vol. 74, pp. 157-169, 2014. Hassanein, M.F., Kharoob O.F., (2013), Behavior of Bridge Girders with Corrugated Webs: (II) Shear Strength and Design, Engineering Structures, Vol. 57, pp. 544-553. Hassanein, M.F., Kharoob O.F., (2013), Behavior of Bridge Girders with Corrugated Webs: (I) Real Boundary Conditions at the Juncture of the Web and Flanges, Engineering Structures, Vol. 57, pp. 554-564. Thank you for listening Contact details: Dr. MOSTAFA FAHMI HASSANEIN Department of Structural Engineering; Faculty of Engineering; Tanta University, Tanta; Egypt E-mail: [email protected] [email protected] Mobile Tel: +201228898494 Fax: +20403315860

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Concussion:Return to Riding

    Concussion:Return to Riding

    Concussion:Return to Riding. Kenneth Perrine, Ph.D. Department of Neurological Surgery. Weill-Cornell Medical College. Topics. Traumatic Brain Injury. Concussion. ER and early treatment. ... (DAI- tearing/shearing of the long fibers leading down from the cortical grey matter.
  • Deterministic vs Probabilstic Modeling

    Deterministic vs Probabilstic Modeling

    Note L(w, d) = - U(w, d) Expected Utility = S U(w,d)*P(w) Objective is to find the decision option for which Expected Utility (EU) is Maximized Roots of Decision Analysis Decision Analysis established as an applied discipline and a field...
  • Polish Pronunciations

    Polish Pronunciations

    1st March 1810 - 17th October 1849 Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of French-Polish parentage He was one of the best known composers in the world. He is considered to be on
  • Identifies knowing, loving and willing

    Identifies knowing, loving and willing

    CPR and First Aid. I understand that I must complete the following before I am certified in the state of Michigan. 1)Red Cross or American Heart Association CPR . 2) First Aid training . These trainings are held on campus...
  • CERN&#x27;s New Mail Server

    CERN's New Mail Server

    [ IN2P3 is the acronym for the French Institute Nationale pour la Physicque Nucleaire et la Physique des Particules.] Graphics courtesy of IN2P3. As I have already mentioned, computing systems dedicated to experimental physics activities will be discussed in the...
  • CGN 2420 Computer tools for civil engineers

    CGN 2420 Computer tools for civil engineers

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Florida International University. Use Excel Ribbon to access excel features. ... insert and hide worksheet columns or rows. ... Right-click the mouse and then click Insert on the shortcut menu. Inserting a Column or...
  • Machine Design Analyis - University of Washington

    Machine Design Analyis - University of Washington

    Mechanics of Materials Lab Lecture 15 Fatigue Mechanical Behavior of Materials Sec. 9.1, 9.2, 9.6 Jiangyu Li University of Washington Static Failure Cyclic Load and Fatigue Failure Stress varies or fluctuates, and is repeated many times Structure members fail under...
  • Chapter 2Operating System Overview

    Chapter 2Operating System Overview

    priority levels to the various processes, with the scheduler selecting processes in. priority order. The long-term queue is a list of new jobs waiting to use the processor. The. OS adds jobs to the system by transferring a process from...