Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint

Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint

Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek

Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2010 *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Unit 7B: Cognition: Thinking, Problem

Solving, Creativity, and Language Unit Overview Thinking Language

Thinking and Language Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Introduction Cognition (thinking)

Cognitive psychologists Thinking Concepts Concepts

Category hierarchies prototype Solving Problems Strategies Algorithms

Step-by-step Heuristic Insight Solving Problems

Creativity Creativity Strernbergs five components Expertise Imaginative thinking skills A venturesome personality

Intrinsic motivation A creative environment Solving Problems Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation bias

Fixation Mental set Functional fixedness Solving Problems Obstacles to Problem Solving

Confirmation bias Fixation Mental set Functional fixedness Making Decisions and Forming Judgments

Using and Misusing Heuristics The Representative Heuristic Making Decisions and Forming Judgments

Using and Misusing Heuristics The Availability Heuristic Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Overconfidence

Overconfidence Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Belief Perseverance Phenomenon Belief perseverance

Consider the opposite Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Perils and Powers of Intuition Intuition

Unconscious intuition Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Effects of Framing Framing

Framing experiments Language Language Introduction

Language Language Structure Phonemes Phoneme English about 40 phonemes

Learning another languages phonemes Language Structure Morphemes Morpheme

Includes prefixes and suffixes Language Structure Grammar Grammar Semantics

Syntax Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Receptive language Productive language

Babbling stage One-word stage Two-word stage Telegraphic speech Language Development

When Do We Learn Language? Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Language Development

When Do We Learn Language? Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Language Development

When Do We Learn Language? Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Language Development

Explaining Language Development Skinner: Operant Learning Learning principles Association Imitation Reinforcement

Language Development Explaining Language Development Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar Language acquisition device Universal grammar

Language Development Explaining Language Development Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Statistical learning

Critical (sensitive) period Thinking and Language Language Influences Thinking Whorfs linguistic determinism

Bilingual advantage Thinking in Images Implicit memory The End

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Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. Adding slides to this presentation Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching

style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this Teacher Information section. Teacher Information

Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the units subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.

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down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only copying down what is on the screen and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

Continuity slides Teacher Information Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on

one another. These are included for three purposes. By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about what might come next in the series of slides.

Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations. Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022 262-253-3400

[email protected] Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) xxx xxx

xxx Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete

this box when finished Definition Slide = add definition here Definition

Slides Cognition = the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Concept = a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. Prototype

= a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

Algorithm = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics.

Heuristic = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

Insight = a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

Creativity = the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Confirmation Bias = a tendency to search for information that

supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. Fixation = the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different

mental set. Mental Set = a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

Functional Fixedness = the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.

Representativeness Heuristic = judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

Availability Heuristic = estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

Overconfidence = the tendency to be more confident that correct to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

Belief Perseverance = clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited. Intuition

= an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. Framing = the way an issue is posed; how an issue is

framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. Language = our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to

communicate meaning. Phoneme = in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

Morpheme = in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix). Grammar

= in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Semantics = the set of rules by which we derive

meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning. Syntax = the rules for combining words into

grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Babbling Stage = beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant

spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. One-word Stage = the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child

speaks mostly in single words. Two-word Stage = beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.

Telegraphic Speech = early speech state in which a child speaks like a telegram go car using mostly nouns and verbs.

Linguistic Determinism = Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

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