Transport of Small Molecules in Polymers: Overview of

Transport of Small Molecules in Polymers: Overview of

Transport of Small Molecules in Polymers: Overview of Research Activities Benny D. Freeman (Brandon Rowe) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Texas at Austin Office: CPE 3.404 and CEER 1.308B Tel.: (512)232-2803, e-mail: [email protected] http://www.che.utexas.edu/graduate_research/freeman.htm http://membrane.ces.utexas.edu March 2009 1 Freeman Research Group Focus Develop fundamental structure/function rules to guide the preparation of high performance polymers or polymer-based materials for gas and liquid separations as well as barrier packaging applications. Freeman Research Group Profile 21 Ph.D. students: Gas Separations: Brandon Rowe, Victor Kusuma, Grant Offord,

Tom Murphy, James Kyzar, Katrina Czenkusch, David Sanders, Zach Smith Liquid Separations: Alyson Sagle, Bryan McCloskey, Hao Ju, Yuan-Hsuan Wu, Lauren Greenlee, Liz Van Wagner, Wei Xie, Dan Miller, Joe Cook, Geoff Geise, Michelle Oh Barrier Materials: Richard Li, Kevin Tung 1 Postdoc: Dr. Claudio Ribeiro Sponsors: NSF - 5 projects DOE 2 projects Office of Naval Research - 1 project Sandia - 1 project Industrial sponsors: Air Liquide, Kuraray, Kraton Polymers, ConocoPhillips, Statkraft, Dow Water Solutions Collaborations

University of Texas: Don Paul (Chem. Eng.), Roger Bonnecaze (Chem. Eng.). Mukul Sharma (Petroleum Eng.), Des Lawler (Env. Eng.), Andy Ellington (Biochemistry) Prof. Eric Baer, Anne Hiltner, Dave Schiraldi (Case Western Reserve Univ.) Prof. Jim McGrath (Virginia Tech) Prof. Doug Kalika (Univ. of Kentucky) Prof. Todd Emrick (Univ. of MA, Amherst) Dr. Anita Hill (CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia) Prof. Giulio Sarti (Univ. of Bologna, Italy) Prof. Philippe Moulin (Univ. Paul Czanne, Aix-en-Provence, France) Prof. Young Moo Lee (Hanyang Univ., Seoul, Korea) Prof. Toshio Masuda (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan) Spreading Water Shortage Science 313, 1088-1090, 2006 5 Magnitude of the Problem Over 1 billion people live without access to

reliable drinking water. 2.3 billion people (41% of the Earths population) live in water stressed areas; expected to increase to 3.5 billion by 2025. Annual global costs in excess of $100 billion in medical costs and loss of productivity. Science 313, 1088-1090, 2006 Why Chlorine is Used in Water Treatment Bacteria-laden untreated water kills more than 3.4 million people every year in developing countries.1 Un-disinfected water causes biofouling of desalination membranes. Chlorine is the most economical disinfectant for deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water. Over 98% of all water treatment facilities in the U.S. disinfect water with chlorine and chlorine-based products. But the problem is: Chlorine degrades desalination membranes, reducing salt rejection and membrane lifetime.

1 Houston Chronicle, Jan.8, 2005 www.americanchemistry.com/chlorine/ 7 Chlorine Attacks Desalination Membranes 100 100 90 90 80 70 NaCl rejecton (%) NaCl rejection (%) 80

60 50 OCl- 40 30 20 10 0 0 Membrane A Membrane B Membrane C Membrane D 3000 6000 70

60 HOCl 50 Membrane A Membrane B Membrane C Membrane D 40 30 9000 12000 Chlorine exposure (ppm-hours) Chlorine as hypochlorite pH > 8.5 20

0 3000 6000 9000 12000 Chlorine exposure (ppm-hours) Chlorine as hypochlorous acid pH < 5.5 Membranes A-D: commercial polyamide membranes T. Knoell, Ultrapure Water, April 2006, pp. 24-31 8 Current Desalination Process Feed water

Chlorinate (0.2-5 ppm) Dechlorinate (Free chlorine < 0.01 ppm) Polyamide desalination membrane To protect membranes from chlorine Desalination 64 (1987) 411; Desalination 124 (1999) 251 Rechlorinate (1-2 ppm) Product water 9

Disulfonated Polysulfone Membranes Exhibit High Chlorine Tolerance 0h 100 NaCl rejection (%) 90 8h 16 h 24 h 33 h HO O BPS 40N 80

S O O OH S O O S O O O BPS 40H

Hydrophilic block 70 SW30HR (FilmTec) 60 O S Cross-flow pH = 9.5 Feed = 2000 ppm NaCl Pressure = 400 psig Flow rate = 0.8 GPM Chlorine = 500 ppm 50 40 0

4000 8000 O O O Hydrophobic block 12000 16000 Chlorine exposure (ppm-hours) High water permeability High chlorine tolerance Excellent fouling-resistance Good reproducibility

H.B. Park, B.D. Freeman, Z.B. Zhang, M. Sankir, and J.E. McGrath, Highly ChlorineTolerant Polymers for Desalination, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 47 6019-6024 (2008) 10 Potential Desalination Process Using Chlorine-Tolerant Membranes Feed water Chlorinate New membrane Product water

Extend membrane lifetime Simplify maintenance and operation Process intensification Cost savings via elimination of dechlorination required by current membranes 11 Research in Water Purification Appears to be Gaining Traction in the Scientific Community New Gas Separation Membrane Materials with Performance Better than Conventional Membranes Science, vol. 318, 12 October 2007, pp. 254-258. Science, vol. 318, 12 October 2007, pp. 254-258. Beating the Permeability-Selectivity Tradeoff for H2 Purification Lin et al., Science, 311, pp. 639-

CO2 Selective Materials Using Nanocomposites to Enhance Membrane Separations Using Nanolayering to Enhance Gas Barrier Properties Student Contacts Last Name Cook Czenkusch Geise Greenlee Ju Kusuma Kyzar Li McCloskey Miller Murphy Offord Ribeiro Rowe Sagle

Sanders Smith Tung Van Wagner Xie Wu First Name Joe Katrina Geoff Lauren Hao Victor James Hua "Richard" Bryan Dan Tom Grant Claudio Brandon Alyson

David Zach Kevin Elizabeth Wei Yuan-Hsuan Email Address [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • GCE &#x27;N&#x27; LEVEL RESULTS 2015 - Junyuan Secondary School

    GCE 'N' LEVEL RESULTS 2015 - Junyuan Secondary School

    Upon completion, GCE 'O' Level holders can apply for admission to the junior colleges, centralised institute, the polytechnics and ITE. ... Can you cope with the academic rigour and assignment deadlines (esp. if you are thinking of working full-time and...
  • Eucharistic Visitor - Episcopal Diocese of El Camino Real

    Eucharistic Visitor - Episcopal Diocese of El Camino Real

    * Hospital Visits People who have illnesses that require acute medical care May be unable to receive communion Unless the patient is sitting up and alert, visits should be brief * Terminally Ill May be unable to receive communion Often...
  • Rotary 101 Whats that all about? So you

    Rotary 101 Whats that all about? So you

    CASH Bequest Society Member: Anyone who leaves The Rotary Foundation at least $10,000 in a will or life insurance policy. * * This again, is Rotary's average goal worldwide. * * Every Rotarian, Every Year was designed to encourage all...
  • Wednesday, 9/4/13

    Wednesday, 9/4/13

    it values grace 3. The passage illustrates the values of Renaissance humanism, because. it instructs the individual to pay attention to personal appearance. it argues that reason should be the measure of all things. it looks to the ancients for...
  • Nonfiction Guided Notes - LITTER BOX

    Nonfiction Guided Notes - LITTER BOX

    Descriptive writing uses images that appeal to the five senses. Most forms of writing can be descriptive. For each of these types of nonfiction, the writing may be objective, based on facts, or subjective, based on opinion. Sometimes the writing...
  • Lesson 7: Creating and Configuring Virtual Machine Settings

    Lesson 7: Creating and Configuring Virtual Machine Settings

    The Connect Virtual Hard Disk page of the New Virtual Machine Wizard ... Windows XP Professional SP3. Windows XP x64 Professional SP2 ... Implements a service in which the parent partition sends regular heartbeat signals to the child partitions, which...
  • CREATE A WINNING MISSIONS TEAM Building Missions Leadership

    CREATE A WINNING MISSIONS TEAM Building Missions Leadership

    Missions funds may be kept in a separate bank account or in the church's general bank account. But a separate accounting of missions funds must always be maintained. These funds should never be borrowed or co-mingled with other funds.
  • Curriculum Mapping - SOESD

    Curriculum Mapping - SOESD

    * Michael Schmoker, Michael Fullan, Doug Reeves, Larry Lazotte and other researchers find that collaboration among teachers is critical if we are to improve student achievement. Mapping provides the process for that to occur, resulting in increased student achievement. ...