SENSATION SENSATION: PROCESS BY WHICH OUR SENSORY SYSTEMS (EYES, EARS AND OTHER SENSORY ORGANS) AND NERVOUS SYSTEM RECEIVE STIMULI FROM OUR ENVIRONMENT. Bottom-up processing; bringing in raw data from the environment WHAT IS
SENSATION? Selective Attention focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus to the exclusion of others. Ex. Blocking out the talking of the student next to you so that you can complete your assignment. Ex. Being so caught up in the TV show you are watching that you didnt notice someone enter the room. Ex. Busy texting while driving that you fail to notice the semi-truck headed right for your windshield.
Selective Attention Cocktail Party phenomenon the ability to attend to only one voice among many. AKA Teacher Ears Selective Attention
Inattentional blindness failing to see visible object when our attention is directed elsewhere Selective Inattention Change blindness failing to notice changes in the
environment Selective Inattention Pop-out phenomenon when stimuli are so powerful or distinct that we automatically notice the change
Selective Inattention Absolute Threshold minimum amount of stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Ex. The dimmest visible star you can see or the amount of pepper in soup you need to actually taste the pepper Mosquito ringtone that adults cannot hear? Broadcasting annoying sounds to deter teens from an area?
Sensory Thresholds Signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise. Assumes there is no single
absolute threshold and that detection depends on a persons experience, expectations, motivation and alertness. Sensory Thresholds Subliminal stimuli any
stimulus below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness Do we unconsciously sense outside stimuli? Sensory Thresholds Flashing a picture of
popcorn during a movie or placing hidden messages in songs. Difference Threshold (also called the just noticeable difference or jnb) minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli half the time Ex. How much do you need to turn up the radio before you notice that it is louder?
Webers Law principle that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage rather than a constant amount. Sensory Thresholds Sensory Adaptation diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation Farmers get used to the smell of pig pens.
After a time your body gets used to the cold water. You get used to eating broccoli; reason why kids dont like as many types of foods as adults. You get used to hearing the busy street from your window. Sensory Adaptation Transduction the process of transforming incoming information of the senses into neural messages that our
brain can process. Applies to all five senses: Vision, Hearing, Touch, Taste and Smell. Sensory Transduction Electromagnetic Spectrum humans can only see visible light Vision
Wavelength the distance between one wave peak and the next determines HUE, the actual color we see Amplitude height
of the wave from top to bottom Vision determines INTENSITY, or brightness of the color
Structure of the Eye Inside the retina, light goes through a series of steps before sent to the brain via the optic nerve. Light hits cones and rods in the outer layer of the retina. Cones detect color and are concentrated in the center of the
retina. (approx. 6 million) Rods detect black, white and gray and are concentrated on the periphery of the retina. (approx. 120 million) Structure of the Retina From the rods and cones, light travels as neural signals to the bipolar cells.
Bipolar cells in turn activate ganglion cells. Ganglion cells converge to form the optic nerve The optic nerve carries these neural signals to the thalamus (switchboard) where that information will be distributed to the visual cortex (occipital lobe). Structure of the Retina Visual Pathway
Feature detector nerve cells that respond to specific features such as shape, angle of movement Visual Information Processing Parallel Processing processing many aspects at once;
including color, motion, form and depth Visual Information Processing Two possible theories as to HOW we see: 1. Young-Hemholtz Trichromatic Theory cones
in the eye are tuned to detect red, green or blue light. Various levels of stimuli in these cones enable us to see millions of different color combinations. Theories of Vision 2. Opponent-process
Theory color is processed in opponent pairs (red-green, yellow-blue and black-white). Light that stimulates one half of the pair inhibits the other half. Theories of Vision
Pitch How HIGH or how LOW a sound is; measured in Hertz (Hz) The woman had a high pitch voice. Amplitude How LOUD or how SOFT a sound is; measured in decibels (dB)
The boy yelled loudly at the dog to sit. The Nature of Sound Structure of the Ear Vibrations enter the auditory canal to the
eardrum. Middle ear chamber containing the hammer, anvil and stirrup that help concentrate vibrations on the cochlea Cochlea coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube through which sound waves trigger neural impulses Inside the basilar membrane hair cells that line the surface trigger impulses sent to the auditory nerve
Auditory nerve goes to thalamus (switchboard) then on to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Auditory Transduction Place Theory theory that link the pitch we hear with the place
where the cochleas membrane is stimulated Explains how we hear HIGH pitches. Theories of Sound Frequency Theory theory that the rate of
nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch Explains how we hear LOW pitches. Theories of Sound
Volley Principle theory that neurons fire at different times allowing us to hear high-frequency sounds Explains how we hear pitches somewhere BETWEEN high
and low. Theories of Sound Sound localization sound waves hit one ear sooner and more intensely than the other, allowing us to locate the source of the sound.
Sound Localization Conduction hearing loss damage to mechanical system that conducts sounds waves to cochlea Ex. Puncture of eardrum or damage to bones of middle ear (hammer, anvil and stirrup) Sensorineural hearing loss damage to the hair cells of the cochlea
Ex. age, heredity, exposure to loud noises Hearing Loss Cochlear Implants device that mimics that job of the cochlea using electronic signals Hearing Loss
Touch: Key terms Kinesthesis system for sensing the position and movement of your individual body parts Vestibular sense sense of body movement and position, especially balance Gate-control theory theory
that the spinal cord allows certain pain signals to pass and others to not pass Other Senses Taste: Key Terms 5 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami Sensory interaction one
sense may influence another as when the smell of food influences its taste. Other Senses Smell: Olfaction: the experience of smell Region of the brain that
processes smell is connected to the limbic system resulting in a strong connection among smell, memory and emotion Other Senses
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