Russia: Industrialization and Revolution (1750-1914)
RUSSIA: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND REVOLUTION (1750-1914) AP World History: Chapter 18 Russia During the 19 Century STILL had an absolute monarchy (the tsar) No national parliament No political parties No nationwide elections
Russian society = dominated by titled nobility Until 1861 = most Russians were serfs Bound to their masters estates; subject to sale; greatly exploited th Tsar Nicholas I (1825-1855) Russia: Transformation from Above In the U.S. = social and economic change has always come from
society as people sought new opportunities and rights In Russia = change was initiated by the state/government itself Done to catch up with the more powerful and innovative states of western Europe Russia: Transformation from Above Peter the Great (1689-1725)
Enlarged and modernized the military Created new educational system for sons of nobles Supported new manufacturing enterprises Nobles had to dress in European styles New capital = St. Petersburg = window on the West Catherine the Great (1762-1796) Russias heir to the Enlightenment
Russia: Transformation from Above 1861 = Russian state abolished serfdom (by Alexander II) Stimulated by its defeat in the Crimean War (1854-1856) Lost to British and French forces War was over influence in territories of the declining Ottoman Empire Tsar Alexander II saw the defeat of Russias serf-army at the hands of FREE British and French troops as a sign to end serfdom
After the abolition of serfdom = Russia began a program of industrial development Russias Industrial Revolution 1890s = industrialization under way and growing rapidly Focused on railroads and heavy industry By 1900 = Russia ranked 4th in the world
in steel production Had major industries in: coal, textiles, and oil Social Outcomes: The Middle Class A Family at Table, 1938 Painting of a Middle-Class Russian Family Growing middle class = comprised of businessmen and professionals Many objected to tsarist Russia and wanted a greater role in political life But, the middle class was
also dependent on the state for: contracts, jobs, and suppressing the growing radicalism of the workers Social Outcomes: The Working Class Factory workers = about 5% of total Russian population Harsh work conditions 13-hour work day Ruthless discipline and
constant disrespect from supervisors Most lived in large, unsanitary barracks Unions and political parties = illegal Only way to protest was through large-scale strikes Social Outcomes: The Working Class Many workers and educated Russians turned to Marxist socialism 1898 = illegal Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party created
Got involved in: workers education, union organizing, and revolutionary action 1905 = a revolution in Russia erupted Russian Revolution of 1905 Erupted following a Russian defeat in a naval war with Japan Workers went on strike and created their own representative councils called soviets Revolution also included: peasant uprisings,
mutinies in the military, student demonstrations, and revolts of nonRussian nationalities The Russo-Japanese War (1905) occurred as a result of imperialist competition over Manchuria and Korea Russian Revolution of 1905 Russian Revolution of 1905 Revolution was brutally suppressed and pretty unsuccessful As a result of the revolution, the tsars regime implemented some reluctant and halfhearted reforms (most of which werent actually carried out)
Granted a constitution Legalized trade unions and political parties Permitted election of a national assembly (the Duma) Censorship eased Plans for universal primary education Continued industrial development After the 1905 Revolution
These limited reforms did not tame the radical working class or bring social stability to Russia 1907 = Tsar Nicholas II dissolved the Duma Limited political voice even for the privileged classes Many felt that revolution was inevitable and necessary if real changes were going to happen Russian Duma in 1906 Growth of Revolutionary Groups
Most of these groups were socialist Most effective in the cities Published pamphlets and newspapers Organized trade unions Spread their messages among workers and peasants Furnished leaders who were able to act when the revolutionary moment arrived The Revolutionary Moment
Key catalyst = World War I Russian Revolution of 1917 sparked by: Hardships of WWI Social tensions of industrialization Autocratic tsarist regime This revolution brought to power the Bolsheviks = radical socialist group Led by Vladimir Lenin
Only in Russia Industrialization caused violent social revolution A socialist party, inspired by Karl Marx, was able to seize power Modern worlds first socialist society
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