Robotic Others: Two way interactivity - one way empathy.
way interactivity one way empathy. Emotional traps and social incorporation of robots Empirically guided reflections Joachim R. Hoeflich University of Erfurt, Germany Content intentions of the
presentation Well known fact that we are social beings Loneliness as motivator to imagine life of physcial artefacts and for anthropomorphism Relationships with robots: as a case of social deprivation or as a result of our basic social and communicative orientation? Some casestudies about emotion and empathy towards robots expected and unexpected results Theoretical elaboration: From a dyadic perspective to a perspective of the third and the robot as a robotic other
From a psychological to a social-communicative perspective (the frame/situation and the robot as a medium). Basic need for social embeddedness People are social animals - social beings Survival depends on (the quality of) social relationships Basic need for supportive bonds with other people Basic social and communicative abilities Assumed, that an old brain (Reeves/Nass) is confronted with the affordances of e new media world.
Loneliness (and modern Societies) John T. Cacioppo (2008: 5): Given the importance of social connection to our species, then, it is all the more troubling that, at any given time, roughly twenty percent of indiviudals that would be sixty million people in the U.S. alone feel sufficiently isolated for it to be a major souce of unhappiness in their lives Loneliness as a pain indicated in the same brain regions as other pains with consequences even for physical health shown for instance in meassurements of stress hormones, immune function, and cardiovascular function.
Loneliness as a subjective, perceptive phenomenon Loneliness as a phenomenon of modern societies loneliness although living together with many people U.K. Appoints a Minister for Loneliness Jan. 17, 2018 LONDON Since Britain voted to leave the European Union more than a year ago, Europeans have mockingly said that the decision
will result in an isolated, lonely island nation. But Britain, in fact, already has a serious problem with loneliness, research has found. More than nine million people in the country often or always feel lonely, according to a 2017 report published by the Jo Cox Commission on Loneliness. The issue prompted Prime Minister Theresa May on Wednesday to appoint a minister for loneliness.
Loneliness and relationships Basic topic of Sherry Turkle Alone together We are increasingsly connected to each other but oddly more alone in intimacy, new solitudes (p. 19) People integrate objects into their (symbolic) interaction Lonely people are more likely to think inanimate objects are alive (Eply et al. 2008, Powers et al. 2014) Whats about media?
Loneliness and Media Already known: Media usage and loneliness For instance (in the context of uses and gratifications research) Television use and chronic loneliness (Perse and Rubin 1990), Loneliness, parasocial interaction, and local television news viewing (Rubin, Perse, Powel 1985). Also for instance in the context of facebook usage: Loneliness and Facebook motives in adolescence: A longitudinal inquiry into directionality of effect (Teppers et al. 2014) Turkle: The ties we form through the internet are not, in the end, the
ties that bind (p. 280). Relationships and Substitutes Loneliness - as a potential condition of relationship substitutes Beyond the lonelyness phenomenon: Humans are open for a broad range of relationships (see also Levy 2007) Human-animal relationships James Serpell (1986): pet trap - to become enmashed and involved emotionally with pets and to lose interest in other people overestimated: most pats living in families Objectophilia objectum sexuals (Amy Marsh 2010) relationships, even erotic
relationships with objects Human and dolls (as example: Oskar Kokoschka, Alma Mahler and the doll) Langcaster-James/Bentley (2018): relationships beyond the sexual high prevalence of non-sexual, post-human companionship dynamics between dolls and their owners, as well as reservations by doll owners about future robotic developments Anthropomorphism and humans Faces in the clouds (Stewart Guthrie 1993) Idea: religion
is anthropomorhism Anthropomorphism, empathy and robots Robot made humanlike with the well know consequences (familiarity/affinity and human likeness uncanny valley) Athropomorphism: way of relating with a non-human identity adressing it as if it where human or a human partner in social interaction/situation Relavant regarding human-robot-interaction
Relation between anthropomorphism and empathy towards robots (Riek et al. 2009) For instance: Sorry for Atlas (from Boston Dynamics) after an experimental attack where the robot has fallen over (seen from the perspective of an observator) Empathie for human and robot handpain (using electroencephalography Suzuki et al. 2015)
Other examples: Robots wish not to be switched off and seem to have private parts After objection of robots interactants are discouraged from switching off the robot (Horstemann et al. 2018) empathy towards the robot, that should not left in the dark. (Im scared that it will not brighten up again) similar: Study of Bartnek/van der Koek (2007): Hesitation to switch of a robot. Anticipation of intimate contacts and embarrasment: Touching a Meachnical Body: Tactile Contact With Body Parts of a Humanoid
Robot is Physiologically Arousing (Li/Reeves 2017). On the other hand: Abuse of Robots Children abuse of robots. Beside of couriosity and enjoyment the researchers presume a certain lack of empathy for the robot depending partly on the humanlikeness of robots (Noruma et al. 2015) Empathic concern: showing empathy when asked to strike a robot (Darling/Nandy, Breazeal 2015) Two way interaction one way
empathy G.H. Mead: Relations to Objects taking the attitude of an object similar as the individual takes the attitude of the other: The me does definitely answer to all the different reactions which the objects about us tend to call out in us. But - Sherry Turkle (2011: 55): The first thing missing if you take a robot as a companion is alterity, the ability to see the world through the eyes of another. Without alterity, there can be no empathy. Human-Robot-Interaction based of a dyadic model Robotic feedback as a artifical empathy Is it a kind of interactional trap?
Yes and no... Research examples Exploratory studies at the University of Erfurt from an interpersonal perspective Reproducing the empirical results of a certain emotional bondage But also and more relevant for this paper: Indicating the social side of human-robot-interaction Indicating the phenomenon to be inside and outside the
frame of human-robot-interaction Research example I: One week with a Babysimulator (RealCare Baby) RealCare Baby 3 (formerly known as Baby Think It Over or BTIO) is the worlds most advanced infant simulator. Case study One week to take the baby wherever you are during a week Famale student - took the baby for instance in lessons at the University or in a caf
Diary method and observations in the public Babysimulator: Lilly Feeling of emotional attachment Findings: Similar to what Sherry Turkle wrote: growing relationship At the end of the week: Problem putting Lilly in a box and sending Lilly back via postal service In the public: demonstrative usage the object Lilly and demonstrating to be part of a University experiment (indicating
status) Including other persons in the relationship with Lilly for instance her boyfriend, with whom the student lived together Research example II: Eplorative study One week with the robot Alpha 1 Task and Method Teach the robot as much as possible Write a report (diary)
Interest in successes, interaction, satisfaction N=34 Method: Self-observation, self-perception, selfexperiments or (lat.) introspection 2 1 Some results In most cases an emotional relationship developed Giving the robot a name Darling et al.: Entities that are given personified names... elict more empathy than
unassociated objects. Speech readiness: Tendency to talk to the robot although the robot had no language recognition The higher the integration into everyday life, the bigger is the pain of separation. Empathic relation: Dysfuntions of the robot feeling of compassion (as if the robot has pain) 2 2
Relationshipdimensions I treated him like a baby. I was happy to turn him off. I handled him with care. I was frightened.
It reminded me a bit of an animal-humanrelationship. I was ashamed of him. 2 3 Frustration/Fear He cannot walk. The battery is always
empty. Im totally overstrained and my boyfriend is desperate. We felt very uncomfortable in the presence of the robot.
I was afraid that he switched himself on automatically and acts beyond our control. 2 4 Outward orientation leaving the human-robot-interaction frame
Malfunctions: Seeking external help from others or via Internet (looking for usage instruction, youtube advices) The bigger the frustration, the more external help was sought. Including others indicating the social dimenstion of human-robotinteraction As an aspect of domestication (social incorporation): Robot as a part of
the domestic sphere Demonstration what the robots has learned (for instance students visiting their families introduced and demonstrated the robot) As a aspect of fear it is better to be together with others instead of beeing alone with the robot (also: robot for instance not in the bedroom) Social distinction (als already mentioned: object of University research) Talk about the robot as a basis for conversation Public desplay of a new kind relationship Research example III: From inclusion to exclusion
Experiments with a robot Case study: Experiments with a robots (Robosapien) Constellation: two students and one robot Task: Take the usage instruction and teach the robot how to solve certain tasks (throwing a ball, slalom between bottles, let him dance and others). A B
R Human (A)-Human (B)-RobotInteraction (based on Yanco/Drury 2002) A B R
R Some results Human-robot-interaction constitutes a distinctive frame (Goffman) Robot as part of the triad (A-B-R) Aspect of integrating the robot Giving it a name (see before) In the case of malfunction: externalisation/exclusion: The relation to the robot changed from a kind of communication partner to an exernal object (re-objectification)
No interaction/communicative reference with the robot not to talk with but to talk about the robot (from inside to outside the frame) From a dyadic to a triadic model Robot as robotic other The robotic other, that is socially embedded: i.e. it imbeds robotics within a framework that is fundamentally engaged in the humanother relationship (Kahn et al. 2004: 546) Interactional approach beyond the dyad Otherness in the context of a triadic relation (see Georg Simmel) From a psychological to a sociological perspective (as a basic aspect of
the research I mentioned) Fruitfulness of the idea: Research of Fortunati et al. (2018). Social dimension: making relations public Public display of connection Simply appearing in public with ones acquaintances is a display of connection (J Donath / b boyd: 2004) Lars and the Real Girl
(from 2007) Oscar nominated 2008 Social incorporation Studies indicate the meaning of the social embeddedness of robots Social incorporation makes a robot a social robot With the consequences of incorporation/inclusion and exclusion To observe the human-robot-interaction Learning from others: Ripple effects of an embedded social agent (for instance: a snack delivery robot in the workplace; Lee et al. 2012).
Empathy from the perspective of a third observer (Breithaupt 2012) for instance: observing how Atlas is going to be attacked From the image to a interaction phenomenon Anthropmorphising as a tool for interaction not a description of the world (Damiano/Dumouchel 2018) imaginary dialogue with an entity Anthropomorphising as a interactive phenomenon (Airenti 2018)
Humans anthropomorphise robots although they know that they have no mental life Depending on the frame: the robot may be anthropomorphised or treated as a object Inside and outside of the frame Robot as a third that oscilates between a robot as a third object and a third person (outside-inside frame) In situ versus outside the frame (we know that a robot is a robot but act as if it is human)
Media phenonmenon: Beeing inside the media (usage) will make you forget that you use a medium being outside opens room for reflection Awareness of the robotness When outside the frame From anthropomorphising to a critical anthropomorphism (Burghardt 2007) In this sense: not simply a cheating technology Kind of solution of the problem Halpern and Katz (2013)
mentioned: ...surprisingly, recognition of human-like characteristics does not necessarily lead to more favorable view of having robots involved in various roles situational closeness does not necessarily lead to emotional involement beyond the situation. Robots as our friends? Point of view: Interpersonal perspective and human openness for relationships Social moment social construction of a robot as companion acceptance and denial
Chance to reflect to be inside a robot-frame and to get out of it Otherwise: Lost in a robot-frame I thank you for your attention!
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