Road Safety Reality Check and Way Forward - BRAC

Road Safety Reality Check and Way Forward - BRAC

Road Safety in Bangladesh Realities and Challenges Hossain Zillur Rahman Power and Participation Research Centre (PPRC) Why is road safety a major concern? A new epidemic: 1.24 million annual deaths / 20-50 million non-fatal injuries Consequences both humanitarian and economic 1-2% of GDP, 100 billion USD annual loss Road fatalities are not inevitable 88 countries saw a drop while 87 saw a rise Urgency of prioritizing 5 million lives can be saved annually through road safety measures Research strategy Scope Assess magnitude of problem Identify causal factors Institutional landscape

Action priorities Multi-disciplinary research team of experts and practitioners Research strategy In-depth analysis of official statistics Review of international experiences In-depth consultations with key stakeholders Survey of drivers Field research on four highway spots: Dhaka-Aricha, Dhaka-Tangail Vehicles and Roads Registered vehicles (2010) Length of road network, 2012 Total 1624862 Total length Cars/4-wheeled light vehicles 529215 Motorized 2/3 wheelers

975682 Heavy trucks 81561 Buses 38101 National highways Regional highways Zila & upazila roads Source: Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2013 Source: Statistical yearbook, 2012 21365 km 3580 km 4276 km 13509 km Magnitude of problem Annual deaths 3137 (official statistics: average for 2002-2012) 5162 (2013: Nirapad sarak Chai; includes deaths en route and after release) Fatality index (official statistics): - 20 deaths annually for each 10,000 vehicles (2011) - Decline from 75 deaths per 10,000 vehicles in 2000 WHO: for each fatality, 20 non-fatal injuries

3 Problems with data - Under-reporting - Non-fatal accidents ignored - No data on victim profile Where do accidents occur? Accident-prone districts Dhaka, Chittagong, Comilla, Tangail, Sirajganj 208 accident black spots (RHD list) Accident-prone highway length: 57 km Most accidents in congestion spots and intersections rather than isolated stretches Accident-prone highway length N1 Dhaka-Chittagong 16.5 N5 Dhaka-Aricha 8.8 N6 Nagarbari-Banglabandh 7.9 Highway

N7 Nagarbari-Rajshahi 6.4 N8 Daulatdia-Jhenaidah-Khulna 5.8 N2 Dhaka-Sylhet 5.1 N4 Gazipur-Tangail-Jamalpur 2.6 N405 Bangabandhu Shetu (Jamuna Bridge) approach road 2.2 N3 Dhaka -M ymensingh 1.6 0 3 6

9 12 Accident-prone length (km) 15 18 Classification of Accident spots Others, 13.00% Bus stand, 40.90% Bazar, 28.40% Road inter-sections, 17.80% Victims and perpetrators Victims Accident types Perpetrators Pedestrians

41% Hit-and-run 42% Bus 38% Bus/car passengers 19% Head-on collision 19% Truck 31% 2/3 wheelers 16% riders/passen gers Over-turned

Truck/bus 14% drivers/passe nger Rear-end hit 9% Cars/jeeps 11% Side swipe 6% 3 wheelers 9% Cyclists 3% 13% Motor-cycles 12%

Post-accident needs Short-term/immediate Need Long-term Ideal provider First aid Transportat ion Local people, nearby medical centre, police, Protect people & vehicles

Compensat ion for victim Need Local people, vehicle staff, nearby medical centre, adjoining local govt reps Ideal provider Compensation Courts, insurance companies Long-term treatment Family, government Police, local leaders

Assistive devices Family, community, insurance companies Vehicle owners, Insurance companies IG skills for disabled NGOs, social entrepreneurs Employment for alternative family member Government, community

Reality check on post-crash facilities Post-crash care Availability Emergency room based injury surveillance system No Emergency access telephone number No Seriously injured transported by ambulance <10% Permanently disabled due to lack of facilities 13% Emergency training for doctors No Emergency training for nurses

No Trauma centres Severely inadequate Driver profiles Variable Finding Age 24-35 years: 47% 36-50 years: 48% Education 48% secondary or equivalent Only 8% wholly illiterate Earner 70% single earner families 22% two earner families Housing 41% rural residence/sleep in

vehicles 33% rented house 21% in dormitories (mess) Monthly income 47% 19% 16% 15% Nature of income Trip-based; only 9% have fixed monthly income - Tk 15-20 thousand Tk. 10-15 thousand Tk. 20-25 thousand Tk. 26-50 thousand Driver characteristics Characteristic Finding License

97% report having license 20% report obtaining license without test 92% pay bribe and 54% face severe time delays in obtaining license Trade union 80% are unionised Training 81% learnt driving skills through informal process usually with a mentor (ustad) Learning hours with ustad 1500 Commercial learning hours is 93 Cost of training

Informal process: approx Tk. 4000 Formal process: approx Tk 6000 Confidence on learning 70% fully confident Work-load About 20% extremely over-worked with 6-7 days weekly and 13-16 hours daily Accident penalty 42% faced no penalty in case of accidents 58% of incurred accidents minor in nature 9 Causes of accidents

Reckless driving Untrained drivers Unfit vehicles Simultaneous operation of motorized and nonmotorized vehicles without separation and adequate rules Vulnerable road-side activities Faulty road design Poor traffic enforcement Lack of road safety awareness and risky pedestrian behavior Culture of impunity and poor legal redress Additional causes highlighted in field research Mental, physical and financial pressures on drivers General lack of road safety awareness Absence of supplementary facilities on roads hard shoulder, bus bays, helpful signal & markings, access roads Failure to productively reconcile local economic growth needs with road safety needs Laws and Institutions MVO 1983 is updated version of 1913 law Major new initiative on new law RTTA, 2011 but yet to materialize Institutions BRTA, Metropolitan, district and highway police, RTC, ARI, RHD, LGED

Perceptions on recent progress and setbacks Perceptions on progress Perceptions on setbacks Perception % of response ---------------------------------------------- Perceptions % of response ------------------------------------------------ New roads built and 84% others repaired ---------------------------------------------------Road dividers/introduction 34% of 1-way system ---------------------------------------------------Building of fly-overs 32% & over-bridges ---------------------------------------------------Increase in number of 21% highway police --------------------------------------------------Some road curves have been 20% straightened

Increased extortion on 62% highways by police/ ruling party activists ---------------------------------------------------------------------Increased traffic of unlicensed 43% informal transports (nasimon/karimon/easy bikes) ---------------------------------------------------------------------Proliferation of road-side markets 39% ---------------------------------------------------------------------Improper and irregular road 21% repair and maintenance ---------------------------------------------------------------------Illegal truck stands & parking 20% on highway ---------------------------------------------------------------------Proliferation of unfit vehicles on the roads 11% ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lack of pedestrian awareness 8% 6 findings that matter Incidents concentrated in accident spots Congestion spots and intersections main location of accidents Pedestrians and vulnerable road-users main victims Multiple causal factors necessitate holistic safety agenda Significant gaps in law and policy

Political economy factors major impediment to 10 recommendations National dialogue on RTTA 2011 for early passage of an appropriately updated road traffic law Regular updating of the list of accident black spots and priority action plan on black spot improvement Improved road engineering solutions with priority attention to geometric standard, intersection design, grade separation, access control on highways, pedestrian facilities, regular maintenance and adoption of road safety audit approach Introduction of an independent economic code for road safety projects in the budgetary process and mobilization of funds including donor assistance for such projects Comprehensive study on optimal resolution of road-building and road-side economic activities Recommendations contd. Promotion of quality driving training schools Scaling up a national road safety awareness program in partnership with civic platforms and NGOs active on the agenda. Such a program is to be targeted to drivers, vulnerable road-users and school children Establishment of a National Traffic Training Academy along with a comprehensive review of current approach to traffic management by police Promotion of effective community policing solutions to irrational traffic congestion and safe use of roads Improving trauma facilities with priority attention to capacity building

on emergency and critical care, institution of a universal emergency access number and affordable provision of assistive devices 4 advocacy priorities Social communication targeted to drivers and vulnerable road users Awareness program targeted to school children Focused workshops with administrative departments RHD, LGED, Ministry of Communication, Ministry of Health and local government bodies aimed at making such bodies more pro-active in realization of their road safety plans Policy advocacy on updated road transport and traffic legislation

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