Relational Leadership and Organizational Climate WITH AN APPLICATION TO CLASSROOM LEADERSHIP Donna Vandergrift, Ph.D., Dean of Liberal Arts Rowan College at Burlington County What is Leadership? A collection of traits? Born with it A group of behaviors/skill? Learned A form of influence? Moves
people to action A transformational process? Results in change How They Make You Feel Feel like you can trust them. Feel safelike they have your back. Feel optimistic and hopeful. Feel good about the future. Leadership in Organizations A 2016 Gallup poll found that only 18% of managers demonstrate a high level of talent for managing others meaning a shocking 82% of
managers arent very good at leading people. Gallup estimated that this lack of leadership capability costs U.S. corporations up to $550 billion annually. New Leadership Styles Shared leadership has been a powerful tool at Catalent Pharma Solutions for managing a complex organization and achieving aggressive growth and operational targets, said CEO John Chiminski. Arthur T. Demoulas, CEO of the family-owned Market Basket grocery-store chain, believes in a people-centric style of leadership and puts people first.
Indra Nooyi used charismatic leadership during her time as Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo. Exhibiting confidence, optimism, and resilience, Nooyi was skilled at creating a vision, communicating it to her employees, and garnering their support. Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh exemplifies collaborative leadership. He built a corporate culture that focuses on teambuilding and power-sharing. He Leadership in Community Colleges Community colleges are facing many challenges Competing demands form varied stakeholder
Competition Limited Lack for students financial support of confidence in higher education Leadership crisis (AACC, 2012; Alfred, 2012; Eddy, 2010; Shults, 2001; Selingo, Chheng, & Clark, 2017) Large Less
number of retirements years in position Leadership in Community Colleges The future of leadership in community colleges will depend to a significant extent on the ability of institutions to identify, not overlook, extraordinary potential for leadership that resides in ordinary people (Alfred, 2012, p. 120). Types of Leadership Laissez-Faire Autocratic Leadership
Relational/Networked Leadership Leadership as an Interactive Process Bass (1990) delineates effective leadership as the interaction among members of a group that initiates and maintains improved expectations and the competence of the group to solve problems or to attain goals (p. 21). Yukl (2013) stated, (l)eadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives (p. 7).
Leadership as an Interactive Process Thought of as a relationship, leadership then becomes a process and an interactive event that occurs and is shared between individuals within a network. When leadership is defined in this manner, power and influence are available to all members of the network. (Bass, 1990; Carter, DeChurch, Braun, & Contractor, 2015; Hosking, 2007; Yukl, 2013; Uhl-Bien, 2006). Relational Leadership
Benefits: Strong interpersonal ties and social networks have been found to increase the performance and effectiveness of individuals and teams (Balkundi & Kilduff, 2006). According to Maak (2007), responsible and ethical leadership is inherently relational. It creates positive organizational climate/culture, minimizes the need for a rigid top-down hierarchical structure, and allows many individuals to strategically lead regardless of the position they hold (Amey & Eddy, 2018). Social Capital
Social capital is a useful construct for understanding how networked, relational connections develop and support organizational and individual successes (e.g. Bourdieu, 1986; Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1995). The concept of capital has roots in the ideas of Durkheim, Marx, and Weber and illustrates how resources are exchanged for returns in labor or other resources. The construct of social capital has become increasingly present within organizational research due to its influence on organizational and individual success (Adler & Kwon, 2002; Kwon Social Capital Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) social
capital (is) the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit (p. 243). This definition suggests that resources are both within the network as well as a product of the network. Social Capital Three types of social capital: Structural Social Capital - interconnections Relational Social Capital trust and respect
Cognitive Social Capital shared understanding Social Capital Structural - the creation and enhancement of networked connections and social ties, the networked relationships, and how the network is organized. Strong ties and dense relations often lead to greater motivation to share information (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). Plays a role in the acquisition of knowledge, resources, and information (Burt, 2001).
Social Capital Relational - relational dynamics such as respect, trust, and shared values and expectation, social norms and the strength of the interpersonal exchange relationships Better trust between the members of an organization leads to more innovation due to the increased closeness between employees (Akram et al., 2017). Additionally, Landry, Amara, and Lamari (2002) and Moran (2005) found in their separate studies that relational social capital influenced innovativeness more than cognitive and structural social capital.
Social Capital Cognitive - collective identity through representations, interpretations, and systems of meaning among individuals, shared meaning and understandings Tsai and Ghoshal (1998) found that shared vision was directly related to perceptions of trustworthiness and indirectly related to resource exchange. Other studies have found that shared language, meanings, value, and narratives predict innovation through knowledge sharing and exchange (Hammarfjord & Roxenhall, 2017; Tomlinson 2011). Connection to Other Theories
Hierarchy of Needs Safety and Security, Love and Belongingness, Esteem, Self-Actualization Fully Functioning Person Openness to experience, Lack of defensiveness, The ability to interpret experiences accurately, A flexible self-concept and the ability to change through experience, The ability to trust one's experiences and form values based on those experiences, Unconditional selfregard and other regard, Open to feedback and willing to make realistic changes Emotional Intelligence Self awareness, Self-management, Social awareness, Relationship management
Authenticity Pursuing their purpose with passion, Practicing solid values, Leading with their hearts as well as their heads, Establishing connected Biological Connections Relationships Good leaders exhibit empathy and become attuned to others moods: This affects both the leaders own brain chemistry and that of their followers. Researchers have found that the leader-follower dynamic is not a case of two (or more) independent brains reacting consciously or unconsciously to each other. Rather, the individual minds become, in a sense, fused into a single system.
Leadership can improve when you learn the kinds of social behavior that reinforce the brains social circuitry. Leading effectively is developing a genuine interest in and talent for fostering positive feelings in the Biological Connections Mirror Neurons Mirror neurons are specialized neurons that allow our brains to mirror what someone is communicating to us. The more listeners understand what a speaker is saying, the more closely their brain responses mirror the speakers brain responses. While
normally there is a slight delay in a listeners response matching up with the speakers, in cases of extremely high comprehension, the delay nearly disappears. In listeners who scored highest on comprehension, brain responses Biological Connection - Awareness The anterior cingulate cortex, frontal insula and the amygdala are brain structures which affect emotional processes, self-awareness, and other awareness. They can give us gut feelings, messages that tell us when something feels right or wrong. They help us read our own signals as well as others signals. These
parts of our brain can responds 100 times faster than the cognitive brain. Biological Connections Thinking Fast Spindle Neurons are larger neurons found in certain regions of the brain that quickly transmit messages. These neurons quickly convey our social emotions across the entire brain. After your cortex receives an emotional input, spindle cells use their cellular velocity to make sure that the rest of the cortex is also saturated in that specific feeling. These cells also help us gauge whether someone is trustworthy. Within onetwentieth of a second, our spindle cells fire with information about how we feel about that person. This could be the basis for what we call Intuition.
When we are self-aware, these thin-slice judgments can be very accurate. Great leaders who are self and other aware effectively act on these judgments. Organizational Climate There are direct connections found between leader behaviors, organizational success, employee satisfaction and organizational climate. It is evident that all members of an organization have an impact of the organizational climate and culture. Organizational Climate Peterson and Spencer (1990) stated that organizational climate within college campuses is the current common patterns of important dimensions of organizational life and its members' perceptions of and attitudes toward those dimensions (p. 7).
Organizational climate deals with how people are experiencing the work environment at any given moment. What is it like to work there and to operate in that culture? How are business conditions and management decisions and actions affecting the general mood? When you consider the collective experience of all the talent in the organization, youre evaluating climate. Organizational Climate & Employee Engagement According to Deloittes Global Human Capital Trends 2015, company culture and employee engagement are driving issues for organizations around the world. Organizations that create a culture defined by meaningful work, deep employee engagement, job and organizational fit, and strong leadership are outperforming their peers and have employees that are engaged at work. 15%
of employees worldwide are engaged in their jobs (Gallup) Of employees who rate their boss unfavorable, 40% interviewed for a new job in the past three months vs. 10% who rated their manager highly (TINYpulse) 12% of businesses are happy with current levels of employee engagement (CBI) Distraction at work is a problem for 69% of full-time employees (Udemy) Classroom Leadership Our main goals for students.Learning, Persisting, and Completing! Research in college students engagement suggests that students who are academically engaged have an increased likelihood of persisting (Lindt & Miller, 2018).
How, then, do we engage our students? Classroom Leadership and Climate According to students, the best teachers are strong classroom leaders who are also friendly and understanding (Wubbels et al., 1997). Hay McBer Report (2000) on teaching effectiveness in schools identified the following three factors that significantly influenced pupil progress: teaching skills, professional characteristics and classroom climate. Results of another study indicated that charisma and intellectual stimulation were the two biggest predictors of students perceptions of an instructors performance (i.e., respect for an instructor, satisfaction with an
instructor, and trust in an instructor) and that individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation were the two biggest predictors of student involvement (Harvey et al., 2003). (see Pounder, 2006) Classroom Leadership and Climate Students feel empowered by, and perceive that they learn more from, professors who get them excited and involved in the learning process, challenge them to be the best students they can be, show them that hard work is worth it, and help them think deeply and critically about course concepts(Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009). College students believe that they are more engaged in their college courses when they believe that their instructor exhibits traits demonstrating care and concern for students and when the instructor creates an environment conducive to learning. (Lindt & Miller, 2018).
Instructor efforts in developing connection with and between students, showing respect and understanding, and clearly communicating the goals and organization of a course have been shown to be related to positive perceptions of the classroom climate and instructor effectiveness (Barr, 2016). Applying of these Concepts Take responsibility for your part of organizational and classroom climate. Invest your social capital by developing relationships and creating shared understandings. Empower people to develop their own connections.
Find opportunities to allow leadership to happen at all levels. Develop your emotional intelligence and authenticity. My Study on Mid-Level Leaders Social Capital Use High: SSC 62%, RSC 48%, CSC 21%
Gender, Tenure at Institution, Roles at Institution Males used more relational social capital than females Individuals 10-20 years had more structural social capital than 2-10 years Multiple roles had more relational and cognitive social capital than those with had one other admin or faculty role Relationship with Organizational Climate Relational and cognitive social capital predicted all measures of climate, including involvement, autonomy, integration, reflexivity, innovation and flexibility, and clarity of
organizational goals. Other resources Trust on teams. Forbes Emotional Intelligence test. Inc. Organization Learning in colleges
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