reducing ADVERBIAL CLAUSES - Professor Flavia Cunha

reducing ADVERBIAL CLAUSES - Professor Flavia Cunha

REDUCING ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Time and reason Reducing Adverbial Clauses Adverbial clauses of time and reason can be reduced to adverb phrases without any changes in meaning, but you have to observe the following: a. The subjects of both clauses must be the same; otherwise, reduction is not possible. b. The subject of the dependent clause and the be form of the verb are always deleted. c. If there is no be form of a verb, the verb form is changed to verb -ing form or verb -ed form. d. Retaining the conjunction is sometimes optional in time clauses. NOTES a. With before, after, since, and

1. Before she had a heart attack, when: she was happy at the nursing - delete the subject; - change the verb to a verb-ing form; home. - sometimes the clause can be 2. Before having a heart attack, ... reduced to a prepositional phrase. b. With while: - delete the subject; - change the verb to a verb-ing form; - while may be deleted when the meaning is at the same time. c. With as: - as must be deleted; - the phrase must come at the beginning of the sentence.

1. She had a heart attack while she was visiting her daughter. 2. While visiting her daughter, ... 3. Visiting her daughter, ... 1. She had a heart attack as she was visiting her daughter. 2. Visiting her daughter, ... NOTES d. With as soon as: - replace as soon as with upon; - change the verb to an ing form; - on can also replace as soon as. e. With because:

1. As soon as the children heard about their mothers heart attack, they rushed to the hospital. 2. Upon hearing about their mothers heart attack, ... 3. On hearing about their mothers heart attack, ... 1. Because I have seen the - the link is not included in the movie, I dont want to go again. 2. Having seen the movie modifying phrase; before, I dont want to go again. - having + past participle.

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