Radicalism versus Gradualism A Systematic Review of the ...
The MAER-Net Colloquium, Plenary Session III Transition Economics University of Athens, Greece, September 12, 2014 Radicalism versus Gradualism A Systematic Review of the Transition Strategy Debate Ichiro IWASAKI Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, JAPAN Jointly with Taku SUZUKI, Teikyo Univerisity, Tokyo, JAPAN Introduction After the end of the Cold War that had constrained the world for as long as 70 years, both the former socialist countries and the rest of the world immediately had to take their next step toward creating a new economic order. The transition strategy debate was about deciding the road map, and, hence, the argument on this subject involved many of leading economists and spread beyond the boundaries of the academic world. The debate has developed as an argument between two conflicting reform philosophies, radicalism and gradualism. Here, radicalism denotes a policy philosophy that demands prompt and parallel implementations of the reform packages advocated by the Washington Consensus. It is also called shock therapy or the big-bang approach, reflecting the content of its relevant policy recommendations.
2 Introduction (2) On the other hand, gradualism is a collective term antithetical to radicalism. Gradualists, however, show a certain congruity in their debate attitude toward a transition strategy, approving a milder policy implementation process in terms of time speed and/or emphasizing theoretical and practical needs to promote structural reforms in a reasonable policy sequence. Despite Vladimir Popovs declaring the end of the debate (Popov, 2000), however, academic discussion regarding transition strategies has continued, and there is no sign of convergence. Therefore, it is still not the time to sum up the transition strategy debate. Nevertheless, it is possible to provide an overall picture of the debate based on studies accumulated during the past 25 years and to examine the relationship between the debate attitudes and literature attributes. 3 Introduction (3) In this paper, we will attempt to achieve these tasks through a systematic review of 135 preceding studies that have contributed to the international debate on radicalism versus gradualism. In addition, we will try to unveil some issues to be tackled
within the framework of the transition strategy debate by paying attention to the above-mentioned minoritys views. 4 Paper Structure 1. Methodology of the literature search and outline of the studies subject to systematic review 2. Overall structure of the transition strategy debate 3. Relationship between debate attitude and literature attributes 4. Beyond the dichotomy: concluding remarks 5 Methodology of the Literature Search and Outline of the Studies Subject to Systematic Review To identify relevant studies during the period from 1989 to 2013, we searched EconLit database using keywords such as big bang, gradualism, radicalism, shock therapy, and Washington Consensus. In addition, we also collected studies that are widely regarded
as having an important influence on the transition strategy debate, although they were not picked up from our mechanical search, and as many non-overlapping related research works as possible. In this way, we collected a total of 368 studies. Next, we further narrowed our focus to study works that can be subjected to our systematic review by carefully reading the 368 studies one by one. As a result, we ultimately selected a total of 135 studies from Svejnar (1989) and Lipton and Sachs (1990) to the latest publications, including Dell'Anno and Villa (2013) and Rutland (2013). We call these 135 studies as the basic collection. 6 Frequency distribution of publication years of all searched literature and the basic collection 30 29 28 Searched literature 25 Basic collection 22 21 21 20
22 2 2 1 0 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Breakdown of the USSR and the 5th anniversary of transition Millenniu m The 20th anniversary of transition 7 Breakdown of the basic collection by authorship attributes 100% 90% Others (3) Other int institutions (6) IMFWorld bank (16) Think tanks (11)
80% As ia and Oceania (15) FSU(9) 2000s and after (19) CEE (19) 70% 1990s (49) 60% No (118) No (108) 50% 40% Universities or academic research institutions (157) North America or Wes tern Europe (150)
1980s (29) 30% 20% 1970s (33) 10% Yes (17) Yes (27) Until 1960s (5) 0% Affi liated institution Location of affi liated institution Median value of authors first publication year Involvement of female researchers Involvement of world-famous economists 8
Breakdown of the basic collection by content attributes 100% 90% Studi es on particular regions or countri es (36) Studies on particular policy areas (18) Project outcomes (15) Studi es using mathematical economic models (23) Econometric studies (15) Studi es using quantitative data (30) 80% 70% 60%
50% 40% Studies without any particular subject regi ons or countries (99) General policy studies (117) Others (120) Focus on particular regions or countries Focus on particular policy areas Outcomes from academic projects Others (112) 30% Studi es without quantitative analysis (90)
20% 10% 0% Employment of mathematical economic model Intensity of empirical examination 9 Breakdown of the basic collection by publication media attributes 100% Unpublished working papers (4) Regional study (6) Internatio nal relations (5) Politics (4) 90% 2009-2013 (25) Gra des 9-10 (20) Sociology (8) Business (5) 80% 2004-2008
(29) 70% Gra des 6-8 (29) 60% 50% Journal articles (121) 1999-2003 (35) Gra des 3-5 (34) Economics (107) 40% 30% 1994-1998 (28) 20% Gra des 1-2 (52) 10% 1989-1993 (18)
Book chapters (6) 0% Academic books (4) Type of publication media Specialized fields of publicatio n media Publication year Quality level b 10 Overall Structure of the Transition Strategy Debate With regard to radicalism advocates, including Lipton and Sachs (1990), Balcerowicz (1994), and others, their debate attitude is remarkably consistent in light of time speed and policy sequence. Indeed, the radicalists share an idea that big-bang and speedy implementations of policy packages are indispensable for establishing a market economy in the former socialist economies. Despite the consistency of its policy recommendations, however, the radicalists can be divided into two research groups. One is the universal radicalism group, which maintains that the best option for the CEE and FSU countries should be radicalism, irrespective of differences in the degree of perfection in the planned system and other historical preconditions. The second is the conditional radicalism group, which affirms
that implementing a transition strategy based on radicalism is a better option than gradualism as long as a series of constraint conditions, such as the policy capability of the government and the citizens understanding and tolerance of capitalism, is 11 Overall Structure of the Transition Strategy Debate (2) Meanwhile, gradualism advocates have a unified voice against the radicalists in criticizing radicalisms speed-before-quality, haphazard, and unrealistic approach. Moreover, gradualists contend that radicalism is highly likely to be associated with socially intolerable negative side effects. When it comes to basic reasons for justifying the gradualist approach, however, gradualists have a more varied rationale in comparison with their radicalist counterparts. In this way, we come up with the first research group among the gradualists, which can be called the slow-paced gradualism group. This group asserts that the transition to a market economy should be carried forward over time so that any social downfall can be avoided, in light of the necessity of effectively controlling the side effects of structural reforms. In contrast to the debate attitude of the slow-paced gradualism group, some researchers particularly emphasize the importance of policy sequence in order to successfully carry out structural reforms that might drastically change a given economic system, while at the same time avoiding excessive social confusion. We call them the step-by-step gradualism group. 12 Overall Structure of the
Transition Strategy Debate (3) Moreover, the gradualists comprise another mass of researchers who regard the assertions of both the slow-paced and the step-by-step gradualism groups as equally important justification for denouncing radicalism. We call them the eclectic gradualism group. Further, there is another research group that takes the side of neither the radicalists nor the gradualists. The essence of their argument is that radicalism and gradualism are not intrinsically paradoxical to each other, but rather are mutually alternative options; therefore, neither of the two can always be superior to the other theoretically and practically. Their debate attitude can be described as neutralism because they remain in the framework of the radicalism-versusgradualism debate while, at the same time, keeping at arm's length from both the radicalists and the gradualists. 13 Overall Structure of the Transition Strategy Debate (4) All researchers who have discussed transition strategy by no means stay within the radicalism-versus-gradualism framework. For instance, some researchers have claimed that some transition countries have carried out a third reform track, which cannot be classified as either radicalism or gradualism. Moreover, some other researchers have serious doubts about
the significance of the transition strategy debate itself. These research groups can be respectively called third-way thinkers and transcendentalists. These two groups almost complete our categorization of researchers who have been deeply involved in the transition strategy debate. To sum up these arguments . 14 Overall structure of the transition strategy debate Universal radicalism Radicalism Conditional radicalism Neutralism Transition strategy debate Gradualism Third-way Slow-paced gradualism Eclectic gradualism Step-by-step gradualism
(94) 30% Slow-paced gradualism (41) 20% 10% 0% (a) Basic collection (b) Radicalism (c) Gradualism 16 Relationship between Debate Attitude and Literature Attributes As a next step, we will examine the relationship between these two elements by means of statistical and econometric methods. First, we conducted a cross tabulation analysis to test the independence of the literature attributes from the debate attitudes. Then, we estimated qualitative choice models to regress the debate attitudes toward a series of the literature attributes simultaneously. In the cross tabulation analysis, we test the interdependence of the debate attitudes and the literature attributes. We also report Cramrs coefficient of association. In the regression analysis, we estimate ordered probit models
that take the degree of the radicalism stance or the degree to which policy sequence is stressed as the dependent variable. To obtain deeper insights into the relationship between the degree to which policy sequence is stressed and the literature attributes within gradualism-advocating literature, we also estimate a multinomial logit choice model that sets the slowpaced gradualism group as its base category. 17 Relationship between Debate Attitude and Literature Attributes (2) Noteworthy findings regarding the relationship between debate attitude and literature attributes are as follows: 1. Authors who belong to think tanks, the IMF, or the World Bank have a stronger tendency to support radicalism, as compared to authors who work for universities or for academic research institutions. 2. Authors whose first publication year is more recent are less likely to support radicalism, as is also true when an eminent economist is among the authors. 3. As compared to studies that discuss the transition strategy in general or without any particular subject regions, studies that explicitly deal with the FSU countries, Cuba, the Czech Republic or Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Uzbekistan tend to express a more negative debate attitude against radicalism. 4. In contrast, studies that discuss a transition strategy based on experiences or cases in China or Poland demonstrate a stronger support for radicalism.
18 Relationship between Debate Attitude and Literature Attributes (3) 5. As compared with general policy studies, studies that argue for a transition strategy in line with the economic liberalization policy are more likely to express their support of radicalism, while studies that handle issues related to macroeconomic stabilization or enterprise reform and corporate restructuring tend to stress a negative stance toward radicalism. 6. Empirical examination is more frequently employed to endorse radicalism. 7. As compared with economics-related media, media that specialize in sociology or politics have a stronger tendency to carry views in favor of radicalism, while media devoted to business administration, international relations, and regional study are more likely to publish papers that distance themselves from radicalism. 8. Publication media with a higher quality level tend to provide a platform to describe pro-radicalism discussions if other conditions remain unchanged. 19 Relationship between Debate Attitude and Literature Attributes (4) 9. As compared with authors who belong to universities or academic research institutions, staff members of international organizations who advocate gradualism pay more attention to the importance of policy sequence than to problems caused by hasty reforms.
10. Research works that study the FSU states, Hungary, and Uzbekistan tend to advocate transition strategies based on slow-paced gradualism rather than on step-by-step gradualism. In contrast, studies that focus on Cuba or certain countries in Southeastern Europe are more likely to justify gradualism from the standpoint of step-by-step gradualism. 11. As compared with economics-related media, media that specialize in business administration and international relations more aggressively feature discussions that emphasize policy sequence, while politics-related media have a stronger inclination to feature opinions that stress the time allocation for promoting reforms. 12. Think tank staff members are more likely to construct arguments that rely on slow-paced gradualism rather than 20 Relationship between Debate Attitude and Literature Attributes (5) 13. Authors based in the CEE and FSU countries have a strong inclination to oppose radicalism from the viewpoint of policy sequence rather than the time allocation for reforms. 14. Female researchers who support gradualism tend to participate in the transition strategy debate based on slowpaced gradualism rather than step-by-step gradualism. 15. Eminent economists have a tendency to express opinions in line with eclectic gradualism. 16. As compared with studies that discuss policies in general, papers that deal with a concrete policy measure put more emphasis on the time speed of reforms. 17. Media specializing in business administration and international relations as well as in sociology are more likely to publish studies that promote step-by-step gradualism rather than slow-pace gradualism, while media related to
regional study as well as politics show the opposite relationship. 21 Beyond the Dichotomy: Concluding Remarks The radicalism-versus-gradualism debate has been developed through the production of a great number of research works characterized by the preceding findings. In this way, it has not only served as a bellwether of academic argument on transition strategy, but it has also played a significant role in the creation of a new research field called transition economics. We strongly believe that the transition strategy debate, which has developed mainly through the study of the former socialist economies in the CEE and FSU regions and China, should be further deepened and systematized toward an upgrade to a more general policy theory. In our view, one of urgent tasks that researchers must tackle is to expand and enrich the empirical studies. As we have shown, econometric studies account for only 11.1% of the entire basic collection. Lack of empirical evidence allows for discretion and arbitrariness by researchers and ultimately keeps the debate from converging. It is possible that the transition strategy debate has actually been trapped in this bottleneck. 22 Beyond the Dichotomy: Concluding Remarks (2) Another task that may significantly contribute to further
development of the transition strategy debate is the deconstruction of the traditional dichotomy. One possible breakthrough is provided by the third-way thinkers, who are trying to overcome serious contradictions caused by an unreasonable attempt to discuss all reform results and economic performances in transition countries within this traditional framework by explicitly identifying some former socialist countries (and China, in some researchers views) as the other country group. In order to promote the deconstruction of the transition strategy debate, we also need to listen to opinions from the transcendentalists, who raise a question about the raison d'tre of the debate itself. The transition strategy debate can further develop into a study area with richer contents and insights by going through the process of responding to bitter criticism from the transcendentalists as well as constructive suggestions from the third-way thinkers. 23 Dear MAER-NET Colleagues! Q1: Do you think such literature review is effective to grasp the whole picture of the transition strategy debate? Q2: Can you accept to call this work as a systematic review in a broader sense? Q3: Can you agree to expand our
scope beyond the synthesis of econometrical evidence as did in 24 Thank you so much for your kind attention! Gradualist Radicalist s s Anders slund Kenneth J. Arrow Jeffrey Sachs Vaclav Klaus Leszek Balcerowicz Douglass C. North Joseph E. Stiglitz Vladimir Popov Andrei Shleifer Peter Murrell 25
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