Morgan AP Teaching Period 1: 1450 CE -1648 CE The Age of Exploration Morgan AP Teaching Spain and Portugal Begin Searching for a route to join the lucrative Indian Ocean Trade Network, Europeans stumbled up the Americas in the late 1400s While the Spanish and Portuguese were the first to initiate large-scale
exploration, all Europeans were inspired to explore by the three Gs The Portuguese focused more on setting up trade posts in Africa and South/ East Asia The Spanish focused more on conquering the Americas, Caribbean, & Pacific by forming colonies Spain and its vast silver mining would make it the most powerful European state up until the end of the Thirty Years War Morgan AP Teaching Travel Technology Lateen sails, stern-post rudder, and the caravel Understanding of wind patterns (trade winds and
Westerlies) Compass, astrolabe, and portolan maps for navigation Royal patronage and joint-stock investment funded Guns and cannons allowed for easy conquest Morgan AP Teaching Columbian Exchange To the New World: cattle, horses, pigs, smallpox, measles, rice, wheat To the Old World: tomatoes, potatoes, corn, tobacco, turkey, syphilis Impact on Old World: Massive population growth due to calorie-dense foods Vast amounts of wealth due to increased trade with foreign
nations The Atlantic States now had the economic powernot the Italian city-states Impact on New World: Massive population loss due to the spreading of Old World disease Oppression due to plantations, mines, and slavery Forced conversion to Christianity Morgan AP Teaching England, France, and the Netherlands Entering the exploration scene late, the other Atlantic states
attempted to grab themselves some lucrative colonies as well All three started colonies in North America, the Caribbean, the Dutch established a colony in Indonesia, and the French and British in India These five dominated world trade for the next two centuries, fighting in Europe, and competing for colonies and resources throughout the world In fact, the Dutch and English particularly developed a whole new set of economic tactics with which to compete with other Europeans: mercantilism The goal of mercantilism being to increase exports, decrease imports, as well as disrupt the trade of other competing countries with privateering and pirating Morgan AP Teaching Treatment of Natives
One of the primary motivations for the Catholic explorers was missionary work: to convert, in some cases by force, Native Americans to Catholicism While some missionaries were kind, and converting people with their kind treatment, help, and attitudes, many were quite violent Natives working for colonial rulers were often required to practice Christianity, and forced to hide their beliefs through syncretism Additionally, most Spanish and Portuguese rulers viewed the Natives as barbaric and inferior, and required civilizing and enlightenment from Christianity Some Europeans, however, opposed Native treatment and the encomiendas System, such as Bartolome de las Casas, arguing such treatment is un-Christian Morgan AP Teaching
Consequences Exploration not only harmed Native Americans forced to work under the encomienda system on mines and plantations (haciendas), but Africans as well In need of cheap and/or free labor, the Atlantic Slave Trade began, in which Europeans bought or captured West Africans for work African slaves were forced to endure the grueling Middle Passage Trip from
Africa as a part of the Triangular Trade System Under this system, goods from the New World came to Europe, Were either sold or used for light manufactured production The profits or goods were then sold to West Africa and Asia allowing more slaves to be purchased for the haciendas
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