PSY 6669 Behavior Pathology - Troy University

PSY 6669 Behavior Pathology - Troy University

PSY 6669 Behavior Pathology Joel K. Fairbanks, Ph.D. Recommended Texts Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from the DSM-5 spiral bound edition Essential Psychopathology & Its Treatment, 4th Ed Casebook for DSM-5: Diagnosis and Treatment Planning Elizabeth Ventura (Editor) NBCCs Official Preparation Guide for the NCMHCE

$44.95 @ NBCC.org NBCC Code of Ethics Free download @ NBCC.org Syllabus Grading: Weekly Vignettes 10 % Mid-term Examination 30 % Case Study Paper 30 %

Due Week 8 Final Examination 30 % Final Course Grade A = 100 90 percentage points B = 80 89

C = 70 79 percentage points D = 60 69percentage points percentage points

Why diagnostic labels ? Such is man that if he has a name for something it ceases to be a riddle. I. B. Singer 1. 2. 3. Define clinical entities. Determine Treatment. Insurance Reimbursement.

Psychopathology or behavior pathology ? Psychopathology: the Why of dysfunction. Behavior Pathology What is abnormal.

Manifestations of Mental Disorders. Etiology Biological Trauma from the Environment.

Psychological Trauma Inducing Biological Changes. GenoTypes and PhenoTypes. Psychosocial Theories: Genetic predisposition and inability to cope with the stress or stressors.

Mental Disorders A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by the clinically significant disturbance in an individuals cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychosocial, biological, or developmental processes

underlying mental functioning (i.e. Symptoms and Impaired Functioning). Mental Disorders: Mental Disorders are usually associated with significant Distress or Disability in social, occupational or other important activities.

Biological changes may or may not be involved. Everyone has some degree of pathology. Mental Disorders

An expected or Culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the

individual and society are not mental disorders. History of psychodiagnostics 1840 the U.S. included only one category for mental disorders.

1880 census expanded to include 7 different categories. 1917 APA developed a classification system that incorporated 59 disorder. 1951 DSM-I published with 106 categories. History of Diagnosing: DSM I

1952 -- DSM I 106 diagnoses 12 History of Diagnosing: DSM II

1968 -- DSM II 182 diagnoses 13 History of Diagnosing: DSM III 1980 -- DSM III

265 diagnoses 14 History of Diagnosing: DSM III R 1987 -- DSM III R 292 diagnoses

15 History of Diagnosing: DSM IV 1994 -- DSM IV 374 diagnoses

16 History of Diagnosing: DSM IV TR 2000 -- DSM IV TR Same diagnoses as in DSM IV

17 1968 DSM-II expanded to include 182 diagnostic categories with ICD-8.

1974 DSM-III included 265 Diagnostic categories and developed the Multi-Axial Diagnostic System with ICD-9. 1987 DSM-III R increased to 292 categories with ICD-9-CM. 1997 DSM-IV increased to 374 diagnostic categories with ICD-10. 2000 DSM-IV-TR Minor changes in the numbering and naming of categories to reflect ICD-10 system.

DSM-IV Multi-axial diagnosis Axis I: 296.23 Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Moderate 305.00 Alcohol Abuse, Mild Polysubstance Abuse (Provisional) Axis II: 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder Axis III: 297.0 Barbiturates Overdose Axis IV: Problems with Primary Support Group, Recent separation.

Axis V: Current GAF = 25 Highest GAF past Year = 60 DSM V

published 2013 485 Diagnoses. 15 new categories added. Many diagnoses renamed to be more generic or politically correct. Eliminated the Multi-axial format. New numbering system with letters to match ICD-10 codes and ICD-11 terms. NOS (not otherwise specified) replaced with Unspecified (e.g. Unspecified

Depressive Disorder). Why do DSM-5s Revisions Matter? Revisions are designed to produce more accurate diagnostic criteria and nosology Earlier diagnosis Earlier treatment

More accurate treatment 21 The Context of Development in DSM-5

Within the diagnostic criteria Examples of how criteria may present in children and adolescents Within the organization of chapters Diagnoses arranged in lifespan fashion, with disorders usually diagnosed earlier in life placed first 22

Diagnostic Categories in DSM-5 Revised organization of DSMs diagnostic categories o Use of dimensions can inform a meta- structure that clarifies etiologic and pathophysiological relationships between disorders

o The spectra approach Autism Spectrum Disorder Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders 23 DSM-5 Organizational Structure

Neurodevelopmental Disorders Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Bipolar and Related Disorders Depressive Disorders Anxiety Disorders 24

DSM-5 Organizational Structure Obsessive-Compulsive and Related

Disorders Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders Dissociative Disorders Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders Elimination Disorders 25 DSM-5 Organizational Structure

Sleep-Wake Disorders Sexual Dysfunctions Gender Dysphoria Disruptive, Impulse Control, and

Conduct Disorders Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Neurocognitive Disorders 26 DSM-5 Organizational Structure

Personality Disorders Paraphilic Disorders Other Mental Disorders Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and Other adverse Effects of Medication Other Conditions That May Be a Focus

of Clinical Attention 27 definitions Etiology: the study of the cause, origin,

or reasons. Epidemiological: the study of the frequency and distribution within various populations. Incident: refers to the number of new cases in a given timeframe. Prevalence: refers to the number of existing cases. Diagnostic theory Principle of Hierarchy. Address the

most severe possible diagnosis then work down the list of possible diagnoses. Principle of Parsimony: What is the simplest and cleanest diagnosis or diagnoses to account for all of the symptoms and behaviors. KISS. Assessment Process History: Case study & Review of Records Interview: Psychosocial & Mental Status

Examination Behavioral Observations Norm Referenced Testing & Referrals Resolve diagnostic uncertainties 7 Steps for making a diagnosis 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. Collect data. Identifying pathologies. Evaluate reliability of the data. Determine overall distinctive features. Arriving at the Diagnosis. Check diagnostic criteria. Resolve diagnostic uncertainty.

Common abbreviations Sx Symptoms R/O Rule Out Hx History NOS not otherwise Dx Diagnosis specified Tx Treatment __

Rx Prescriptions C With H&P History & Physical __ AEB As Evidenced By S Without Pt. Patient Prognosis

1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Natural course of the pts. disorder. Highest prior level of functioning. Duration of present illness. Abruptness of onset.

Age of onset. Availability of effective treatment. Treatment compliance. Having a supportive social network. Subtypes & Specifiers Subtypes define mutually and jointly exhaustive phenomenological subgroupings within a diagnosis (e.g., Delusional Disorder, paranoid type). Specifiers provide an opportunity to define a more homogeneous

subgrouping of individuals with the disorder who share certain features (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder, with mixed features). Principal Diagnosis When more than one diagnosis for an individual is given, the Principal Diagnosis is the reason for admission

or the presenting problems at the time of intake and the focus of attention or treatment. Provisional Diagnosis The Specifier Provisional can be used when there is a strong assumption that the full criteria will ultimately be met for a disorder but not enough information is

available to make a firm diagnosis. F32.9 Unspecified Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Disorder, Provisional Sample DSM-5 Diagnosis F33.0 Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Mild, With seasonal pattern

F91.3 Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Moderate F10.20 Alcohol Use, Moderate NBCC National Mental Health Counselors Exam Initial interview and assessment

Recommended Testing or Referrals Diagnosis Treatment Plan & Ethical Concerns

NBCC Terms & Definitions Plausible Diagnoses; All possible diagnoses. Differential Diagnoses: DSM5 defined similar diagnoses to be considered.

Rule Out: Opposite of the diagnosis and the first to be quickly eliminated. Information Gathering SPLAT

Symptom Identification Problem Recognition Level of Functioning Assessment Tools Treatment Progress

Decision Making : TOASTED Treatment Techniques

Objectives & Goals Adjunct Services Services during Treatment Termination & Referrals Ethics Diagnosis Assessments on the NBCC Aptitude Tests measure Success

oriented. Interest Inventories assess Occupational satisfaction. Case Study What is the presenting Problem ?

List all Symptoms and Behaviors. Note Duration, Time-frame, Intensity.

Where is the dysfunction or setting ? The End Comments Question and answer Thank you!

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